Dundee Future Cities Demonstrator Feasibility. Report for. Dundee City Council

July 11, 2018 | Author: Eileen Fletcher | Category: N/A
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1 Dundee Future Cities Demnstratr Feasibility Reprt fr Dundee City Cuncil EKOS Limited, St. Gerge s Studis, St. Gerge s ...

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Dundee Future Cities Demonstrator Feasibility Report for Dundee City Council EKOS Limited, St. George’s Studios, 93-97 St. George’s Road, Glasgow, G3 6JA Reg 145099 Telephone: 0141 353 1994 Web: www.ekos-consultants.co.uk

Direct enquiries regarding this report should be submitted to: Brian McLaren, Director, EKOS Email: [email protected] Tel: 0141 353 8313

 As part of our green office policy all EKOS reports are printed double sided on 100% sustainable paper

Contents

Executive Summary

1

1.

Introduction

9

2.

Background and Context

12

3.

City Vision

28

4.

City Systems

38

5.

Approach to Integration

59

6.

Potential Impacts

85

7.

Barriers

93

8.

Finance

104

Appendix 1: Desk Review

106

Executive Summary Introduction Dundee is a city facing many and complex social and economic challenges. From a period of post industrial decline and deterioration in the urban fabric, the city has been reinventing itself through regeneration, higher education and new growth industries. It is a dynamic and ambitious city yet one that still struggles with serious deprivation, and the attendant economic, social and health problems that that entails. The current study examined the potential to develop a Future Cities Demonstrator project in Dundee. It drew upon a wide range of data to describe the economic, demographic and social position of the city and on the views of many stakeholders and actors at local and national levels. The project that has resulted is strongly based on consensus across the partners regarding the main issues facing the city and the opportunities to address these while encouraging sustainable economic growth.

City Challenges and Opportunities The project has been developed form a clear picture of the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats for Dundee These are summarised below. Strengths •

manageable city scale and strong track record of partnership working in the city;



skilled and highly educated public sector workforce;



strengths in key growth sectors such as digital media, life sciences and renewable energy;



vibrant higher education sector with strengths in research and well established industry links;



large student population;



affordable housing; 1



central location within Scotland;



strong political commitment to the reduction of carbon emissions; and



strong history and tradition in innovation.

Weaknesses •

slow rate of private sector employment growth and over reliance on the public sector;



highly concentrated pockets of extreme deprivation;



high levels of unemployment and economic inactivity, and the third highest per capita welfare bill in the UK;



poor performance on a wide range of health measures compounding deprivation issues;



growing levels of carbon emissions; and



negative external perceptions of the city based on deprivation and post industrial decline – this is consistently identified as a challenge to recruiting key talent from global labour markets in areas like digital media and games development.

Opportunities •

the transformation of the Waterfront delivering substantial economic, social and environmental benefits;



the potential of the V&A at Dundee to significantly transform the city’s reputation and profile, increase visitor numbers and enhance the cultural offer;



the city’s existing expertise in integrating city services via the Dundee Smartcard and the National Entitlement Card;



the potential for significant development in renewable energy at the Port area;



local strength in digital media and life sciences – sectors that offer not only the potential for commercial growth but can also make a significant contribution to the city’s challenges;

2

the City Council already has a citizen account that is recognised across its



full range of services, data sharing agreements with other statutory services and has detailed knowledge of the consent to share data with partners outside the public sector; and Dundee has a national reputation for hosting innovation competitions and



is a recognised centre of excellence in computer games and many of these companies have pioneered smartphone app developments. The Dare to Be Digital competition (University of Abertay) provides a successful template for running completions to exploit the shared data and smart networking infrastructure deployed in Dundee. Threats •

ongoing pressure on public sector finance, an issue that is particularly acute in Dundee given the importance of the public sector to the local economy;



the risk of protracted economic recession and the potential impact on employment and inequalities in the city;



an ageing population creating an increase in demand for essential services in health and social care;



growing competition from other cities (UK and elsewhere) for inward investment and key talent;



rising levels of carbon emissions threatening to damage the environment of Dundee; and



failure to stimulate sustainable growth and achieve a more equitable distribution of opportunity could see future decline if Dundee does not keep pace with other UK cities.

Future City Vision and Priority Challenges Through the feasibility research and consultation process, a vision has been developed for Dundee as a Future City. This vision is based both on the need to achieve key economic, social and environmental aspirations as well as the

3

imperative to address the city’s main challenges and opportunities. These challenges can be summarised as: •

addressing issues of concentrated and persistent deprivation;



improving the health and well being of Dundee’s citizens;



supporting growth in private sector employment, particularly in key sectors;



reducing carbon emissions; and



delivering more efficient and cost effective public services.

The vision for Dundee as a Future City puts at its very heart the people of Dundee. Cities are about people – people make cities what they are, and cities exist in the first place because they make life easier for people. Too often this simple truth is overlooked in city visions that focus on infrastructure, economic growth and expansion. Future City Dundee will be a city in which: •

people have access to opportunities and to the services that they need, when they need them;



people are empowered to make an active contribution to the success of the city;



people are connected, building sustainable and vibrant communities;



people are proud of their city, and are engaged in public life;



people are enabled to live economically productive and healthy lives; and



people value their environment, and work to protect it through more sustainable living.

Dundee Demonstrator The rationale for a high level Future City Demonstrator proposition is outlined in Chapter 4 of the report and Chapter 5 describes the project in detail. The proposition addresses the key city challenges identified above, and is based on consideration of the strengths and limitations of existing city systems and the benefits of integration.

4

The proposition can be summarised as follows: •

the development of citizen accounts – unique accounts for each citizen in Dundee that contains essential basic data about that individual and to which the citizen can add data and control the level of access to those data by service providers. The account belongs to the citizen and not to the Council or any other service provider and are accessed via smartcards, smartphone apps or online;



the development of an integrated citizen services platform that brings together transport, health and social care, city facilities and visitor attractions and potentially energy into a single integrated and connected system and integrates with the citizen accounts via a virtual platform and a range of smart urban infrastructure such as card/ app readers on public transport, point of sale and door entry systems in key facilities and buildings and citizen information feeds in areas like healthcare and traffic;



the platform has the potential for further development to support the integration of other city systems (public and private) through an open access design;



the platform should be citizen-centred, and facilitate a user-led approach to the design and delivery of city services; and



the platform should be supported by an open data platform that provides transparent and accessible data about the city’s systems and how they are used. This will benefit service providers, citizens and commercial businesses.

This is a vision of a connected city and the Demonstrator should focus on building the necessary technology platforms and testing the model through a series of service modules addressing: •

mobility – encouraging greater use of public transport through integrated smart ticketing and more targeted concessions and incentive schemes to encourage use of public transport;

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health and well being – encouraging healthier living and improving public health by integrating healthcare with services such as transport and leisure;



community innovation – encouraging community-led innovation via reward and incentive schemes, and open access to the service platform for innovative projects and services;



digital inclusion – encouraging uptake of digital services through the provision of smartphones and tablets, customised to prove ‘always-on’ access to essential services via the Citizen Account and Dundee Smart Space; and



SME innovation – facilitating the development of new innovative services and products through a series of innovation competitions, hack days and open access to city data.

The project also proposes an innovative delivery structure including an arm’s lengths Design House that brings together collaborative teams across the private public and community sectors to innovative new product and service ideas. The intention is to move the citizen account and service platform into community ownership to create a new structure for city management and a sustainable platform for future innovation.

Impacts The Demonstrator will generate impacts in three broad areas: Economic impacts will include: •

direct economic benefits to commercial operators commissioned to deliver services to the Demonstrator project, including potential to develop scalable products



direct economic benefits to transport operators through increased use of public transport systems



direct economic benefits to SMEs engaged in SME Innovation activity, such as innovation and market outcomes which can translate into additional employment and GVA at the city level; 6



indirect economic benefits through making Dundee a more attractive location for investment, either by mobile companies already based in the city and for potential new inward investors. Similarly, the enhancing the quality of life in Dundee will assist in the retention and attraction of key skills to enable a competitive economy;



indirect economic benefits through making Dundee a more efficient base for productive activity, for example by improving connectivity or easing recruitment shortages;



economic impacts from new start up activity, as a key project focus will be to encourage the provision of new and innovative services by private and community enterprises;



cost savings in service delivery to project partners, for example through more efficient targeting of support at disadvantaged individuals, etc;



income generated for the city through the commercial exploitation of the data generated.

Social impacts, will include: •

enhanced community cohesiveness via the Community Giving module which seeks to promote local engagement through volunteering and other channels;



increased income for disadvantaged households, either through better access to benefit/ service entitlements, or to services which enhance the employability of disadvantaged individuals/groups;



improved health outcomes through better targeting of, and access to, appropriate preventative and ameliorative services; and



better awareness of and improved access to education and other learning opportunities.

Environmental impacts will be driven largely by the scale and nature of behaviour change that is effected and will include: •

reduction in car journeys;



increased use of public transport;

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improvement in traffic flows at key points in the city;



reduction in pollutants/ improved air quality;



reduction in traffic accidents;



reductions in business transport costs; and



reductions in carbon emissions.

Barriers The feasibility study also addressed a range of barriers to be overcome in delivering the Demonstrator project. These relate to four broad areas •

organisational and institutional issues;



technological issues;



public interest issues; and



resource issues.

With robust governance structures, clear project planning and innovative applications of technology solutions, these barriers can be addressed. This is not to say that the project is without risk – it is not – but these risks can be mitigated and managed through the delivery structure and processes identified in the report.

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1. Introduction This report presents the findings of a study into the feasibility of creating a Future Cities Demonstrator project in Dundee. It has directly informed the city’s application to the Technology Strategy Board (TSB) Future Cities Demonstrator Competition.

1.1 Background The Future Cities Demonstrator Competition has been developed by the TSB in recognition both of the central role that cities play in modern society and of the considerable challenges that our cities face. The contribution of cities to economic growth is undisputed. They are natural centres of economic activity, offering concentrated access to talent, infrastructure and facilities that other economic activity exerts growing pressure on cities in a variety of ways from fast growing demand for healthcare, education and other critical public services to the pressure on urban transport networks and increasing environmental impact. Responding to these challenges is complex and demands considerable innovation and investment. The TSB has also identified a need for innovation that goes beyond the development of the individual systems and components of the city, and instead focuses on integrated and city-wide systems that can maximise the benefits of big cities while minimising the downsides. This is the purpose of the Future Cities Demonstrator (FCD) Competition. Dundee is one of only two cities in Scotland to make it to Round 2 of the competition, with a proposal based on three main elements: •

Waterfront regeneration project: the city is targeting almost £1bn of investment to develop the city’s waterfront into a new urban quarter combining business, leisure and residential developments. The FC Demonstrator would add to this existing investment, providing additional opportunities to develop and embed integrated technology and systems to support economic and social development;

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Data integration/ access and use: proposals are to integrate data and information from all city systems into a single accessible source, and develop accessible means for business, public sector, academia and the community to access and make use of these data; and



Engagement of innovative companies/ citizens: through the provision of access to open source data (see above) and the creation of test bed environments the project aims to provide innovative businesses (and citizens) with opportunities to test new technologies, products and services.

1.2 Study Purpose and Objectives The purpose of the feasibility study is to establish the potential within Dundee to create a successful Future Cities Demonstrator project. More specifically, the study has explored: •

the context for the project, identifying the strategic vision for the city and evidencing the key opportunities, challenges and issues, and demonstrating the ways in which the FCD project will help address these issues;



current city systems, identifying those that need integrated, and the ways in which this integration will address the issues and challenges for the city;



approach to systems integration, articulating the ways in which the project will, in practice, develop more integrated city systems and how specific issues will be tackled;



the benefits of integrating these systems, relating back to the issues and challenges already identified, and address benefits in terms of the city economy, quality of life for citizens and reduced environmental impact; and



the barriers to successful integration of city systems in Dundee, explaining how these barriers will be addressed in the FC demonstrator project.

1.3 Study Approach The study has been conducted by a team led by EKOS, working with experts from Making Cities Matter and Innovation Centres Scotland, and in close partnership with staff across Dundee City Council. The approach has involved the following: 10



review of existing data and information to describe in detail the urban area and identify the key future challenges and opportunities for Dundee;



review of existing city systems to identify strengths, weaknesses and current limitations;



consultation with a range of stakeholders and partners within and beyond the city, including representatives of the private, public and third sectors;



workshops with Dundee City Council and its partners to review and appraise options and develop the FCD vision and project; and



more detailed work with DCC and key partners to scope out the project and identify resource requirements.

1.4 Report Structure In line with the guidance issued by TSB, the report has been structured into the following sections: •

Chapter 2 describes the background and context of Dundee;



Chapter 3 identifies the future vision for the city, identifying key strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats and how integration of city systems can help address these issues;



Chapter 4 discusses which city systems need integrated and presents and appraises a range of possible options;



Chapter 5 develops the preferred option in more detail, covering the approach to the integration project;



Chapter 6 addresses the potential benefits of the project in economic, social and environmental term;



Chapter 7 discusses the key barriers and risks to successful delivery and how these may be overcome; and



Chapter 8 summarises the main conclusions and recommendations.

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2. Background and Context 2.1 Introduction Dundee is a small yet dynamic city on the east coast of Scotland between Edinburgh and Aberdeen. The city is the main regional centre within the wider Tayside Region where it acts as the main employment, retail and service centre for a regional population of over 400,000.

2.1.1 The Built Environment The city, which extends to 55 sq.km, is contained within the administrative boundary of Dundee City Council which delivers a wide range of statutory and non-statutory provision, locally, through eight multi member wards. As would be expected, the city is largely urban in character and comprises a number of areas including: •

large waterfront and harbour which forms the southern boundary of the city which has been subject to a major regeneration initiative and provides the city with an attractive frontage;



key retail and commercial centres: o

recently regenerated city centre comprising individual retail centres, including the Overgate Centre which was developed by world leaders, LendLease and purchased by the UK’s largest property company for £141M in 2011

o •

out of centre development around the ring roads

the city’s business areas comprise: o

older industrial areas close to the city centre (now largely redeveloped)

o

a range of (largely) pre-60s industrial estates built along and outside the ring road network; and

o

modern technology/ science parks largely within the ring road network and alongside trunk routes, such as Claverhouse Industrial Park

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the housing stock comprises: o

older private housing to the west of the city

o

the beach front suburb of Broughty Ferry to the east

o

peripheral housing estates comprising largely public/social sector housing;

o •

city centre housing and flats built on previous industrial land

leisure and outdoor facilities are distributed throughout the city but with a focus to the north east and north west

In the last 20 years the city has undertaken a range of major regeneration/ redevelopment initiatives which have had a major positive impact. Combined with the success of the city’s universities, a growing focus on high value knowledge industries and careful nurturing of an increasingly vibrant cultural sector, the image of the city is being slowly transformed. However, many challenges remain and ongoing regeneration activities are necessary. This includes the redevelopment of Dundee’s waterfront, regeneration of housing estates such as Mill O Mains and Whitfield and the redevelopment of neighbourhood centres such as Lochee.

2.1.2 Demographic Structure In contrast to many other UK cities, Dundee has experienced a significant decline in its population in the recent past. The local population fell continuously from 170,000 in 1982 to 155,000 in 1991 to 145,000 in 2001. It continued to fall until 2005 (142,000) but has since stabilised around the current level of 145,000 (2011). This turnaround looks set to continue, with forecasts for further population growth of 1

6.5% over the next 25 years . Although lower than the projects population growth rates for Scotland as a whole (10.2%) this remains a positive development. The working age population of the city is 91,000, more or less equally split by gender. However, Dundee has a slightly lower rate of children (16.5%) compared to Scotland (17.4%) and a higher rate of people of pensionable age (20.2%) compared to Scotland at (19.8%). 1

General Register Office of Scotland

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This demographic bias is forecast to increase as the population continues to age over the next 25 years with the percentage share of all age groups below 65 years forecast to decline and the share of those aged 65-74 expected to rise from 9.1% to 11.4%. In fact, the 2011 report by Centre for Cities, places Dundee as the third slowest growing of all UK cities. There is therefore a need to grow the working age population of Dundee to support future economic growth.

2.1.3 Dundee Economic Profile2 In 2011, there were around 74,000 jobs in Dundee, with the main areas of employment being in professional, scientific and technical services, business services; hospitality; information and communication; retail; and construction which together accounted for around 60% of total employment. The recent past has been one of employment growth from 2000 to 2008 until, post recession, employment began to fall with the loss of around 5,000 private sector jobs and an increase of 2,000 public sector jobs. In fact, the extent of Dundee’s reliance on the public sector is made stark by the finding that it has the lowest level of private 3

sector employment (proportionately) of all UK cities . NHS Tayside is the largest employer in the city, followed by Dundee City Council. This degree of reliance is obviously a structural weakness in the city’s economy and suggests two key priorities for the future. First, stimulating private sector employment growth is crucial, a priority that is clearly identified in city strategies. However, there is also a clear need to ensure that the public sector in the city is functioning effectively, releasing opportunity for private and third sector actors to play an active role in the delivery of city services. Total GVA in the city fell from £1.64bn in 2008 to £1.38bn in 2010, although GVA per capita remains slightly higher than the UK average at £20,000. However, as it has everywhere, the recession has taken a toll on productivity performance in the city with a fall in GVA per employee from £31,796 to £29,313 over the same period.

2 3

Sources: ONS; BRES; Scottish Business Statistics – further details in Appendix 1 Centre for Cities REF

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The business base in Dundee comprises 3,430 enterprises employing 49,000 people and generating sales of £4.6 billion (excluding the public sector). Around 400 companies (12% of the total base) employ more than 250 people and the overall size of the business base has been relatively static, with a similar number of start ups and closures over last 10 years. However, the level of new business bank accounts has fallen from around 500 pre recession to around 300 in 2011/12. Stimulating enterprise activity is another clear area of need.

2.1.4 Dundee’s Economic Future The Dundee economy has gone through many changes – from a successful Victorian economy to manufacturing investment from the 1950s to 1980s, which has since gone into steady decline. The city has shown a continual aptitude for re-invention, now seeking to build future economic prosperity around new economy activities in life sciences; creative industries; financial and business services; energy; and tourism. Together with a concerted effort to deliver supporting physical regeneration, this has resulted in a very different profile for the city.

Life Sciences Dundee is home to one of the largest life sciences clusters in the UK, with worldclass companies, universities and research institutions all within a 3 mile radius. Three of the most cited scientists in the world are based in Dundee. Over 4,000 people now work in Dundee's life sciences sector - this accounts for 16% of the local economy and is forecast to grow at 10% per annum over the next 3 years. [http://www.biodundee.co.uk/]

Creative Industries Dundee is an internationally renowned centre for creative industries and particularly, digital media and computer games development. More than 350 businesses in the sector, employing more than 3,300 people, are currently based in Dundee and the surrounding area generating a combined annual turnover in excess of £185 million. The world famous Grand Theft Auto games franchise originated in Dundee and the city is home to a thriving cluster of games developers working across a range of

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platforms, and supported by the world leading computer games courses delivered at the University of Abertay. Key digital media companies within the city include Ruffian Games, Denki, and Bright Solid, the world’s second largest genealogy and family history company. [http://www.dundeewaterfront.com/zones/734/Seabraes/]

Renewable Energy Renewable energy is seen as an important part of the future for Dundee and the broader local economy, encompassing wind, marine and hydro energy, as well as bio, solar and geothermal energy. There are a growing number of businesses in Dundee who are either currently involved or are seeking to engage in the renewable sector, and Scottish and Southern Energy (SEE), one of the UK’s largest energy companies is a key partner in the Dundee Waterfront development. Dundee was also identified in the Scottish Government’s National Renewables Investment Plan as the key location for the manufacturing of offshore renewables in Scotland. [http://www.dundeerenewables.com/]

Tourism The annual tourism spend in the city is £134million with 8.7% directly employed in the sector. Key developments include: the Dundee Waterfront redevelopment which will reconnect the city and the river and will include a £47m project to see a new iconic Victoria and Albert Museum built on the River Tay. Another key aspect is the growth of business tourism in the city. [http://www.angusanddundee.co.uk/]

Financial and Business Services Dundee has a strong offering for financial and business services. The city has been voted 3 times as one of the Top 7 most intelligent communities in the world by New York think tank, ICF. There are currently over 6000 people employed within the industry in companies such as Alliance Trust, BNP Paribas, Tesco, Dundee Pension Centre and HMRC. Talking Tayside, Tayside’s Contact Centre Forum was established in June 2000 [http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/talkingtayside/].

Retail Dundee is a leading shopping destination and north east Scotland’s key centre for retail: voted the UK’s 57th retail centre (out of 1000). With a complementary mix of 16

national chains and independent retailers, the city offers: 1.6million square ft, equating to 569 retail units, within the city centre; Footfall figures reaching 185,000 per week with a total spend of £664m. Growth in the sector has already supported many jobs and is a strong component of the tourism mix.

2.1.5 Dundee Social Profile Like many of the UK’s leading cities, Dundee is a city of sharp contrasts. High levels of deprivation, low stocks of private housing and a poor record on health sit alongside a large student population and well qualified professionals. In fact, Dundee th

has the 10 higher proportion of high level qualifications of all UK cities. Levels of deprivation in Dundee are very high. Almost one-third of the population lives in the 15% most deprived datazones in Scotland, and the proportion classified as suffering income deprivation is 21% compared to 16% for Scotland as a whole. Average earnings in the city are lower than in Scotland and the UK. The level of economic inactivity is 4% greater (26.8%) than Scotland as a whole and the claimant count has been consistently higher than Scotland and the UK over last 10 years. Long term unemployment in the city follows a similar trend, and the ratio of the ratio of JSA claimants to notified vacancies is almost double that of the UK as a whole. More than one-fifth of the working age population is claiming at least one form of benefit, with ESA/B accounting for the largest proportion of benefits claimed. Across 59 key indicators of health and wellbeing, Dundee City is statistically “significantly worse” than the Scottish average on half of the indicators (30), and 11% of the population are diagnosed with mental health problems compared to 8% in Scotland. Dundee also has the highest under-18 teenage pregnancy rate of any Community Health Partnership area in Scotland (76.4 per 1,000 females aged 15-17, compared with 41.4 per 1,000 Scotland-wide). These and long standing and persistent challenges that have seen very little improvement in 20 years or more.

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Dundee – A City Case Study The Centre for Cities published its City Monitor report in 2012 which compared and contrasted economic performance across 68 UK cities. The report specifically highlights the top and bottom 10 in a number of categories – Dundee came in the bottom 10 on six occasions and in the top 10 once. th

10 highest in UK (highest in Scotland) for youth unemployment th

8 lowest in UK for business starts rd

3 lowest for business density th

10 UK city for high level qualifications th

6 lowest for private sector job growth lowest in UK for private sector employment

4

th

7 highest JSA count

2.2 Key Activities and Developments In considering the context for the FCD project, it is important to take account of wider developments in the city. While it is not possible to capture the full range of activities, here we focus on five areas that offer real opportunity to the city and to the FCD proposals.

Dundee Waterfront Dundee Waterfront is a £1 billion project to reconnect the city to the waterfront, and the long-term vision for the waterfront is outlined below. It is one of the UK’s top 20 regeneration projects.

4

(lowest if discount Oxford and Cambridge)

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To transform the City of Dundee into a world leading waterfront destination for visitors and businesses through the enhancement of its physical, economic and cultural assets. The project is being led by Dundee City Council, Scottish Enterprise and the Scottish Government. The 30-year redevelopment (mixed uses including business, commercial, leisure, retail, residential and port related uses) began back in 2001 and consists of 240 hectares of land stretching 8km along the River Tay. Figure 2.1: Dundee Waterfront

It is anticipated that the redevelopment will lead to the creation of over 7,000 jobs in additional to significantly enhancing the city’s landscape. The Dundee Waterfront project consists of five areas, from Invergowrie Bay in the West of the city to Stannergate in the East. The areas being developed, and specific projects, include: •

Riverside o

a former landfill site has been transformed to create a 35 hectare nature park with views over the River Tay (complete)

o

there are proposals to create a rail stop and Park and Ride facilities to enable access to other waterfront zones

o •

there are plans to develop residential flats along the riverside;

Seabraes

19

o

this aspect of the development will build on the city’s reputation and expertise in digital media and creative industries

o

a range of premises, sizes and pricing to suit companies from the most basic start-ups to established businesses are already available (Seabraes House and Vision) (complete)

o

other proposed developments include District [email protected] (office and digital media – including Scottish Enterprise’s proposed creative sector incubator space to be built using the shipping container model) and Greenmarket (leisure and retail)

o •

two sites have also been earmarked for residential development

The Central Waterfront o

this is the focal point of the overall Dundee Waterfront project and will have a focus on city centre businesses, financial sector, hospitality and leisure

o

demolition of bridge ramps, roads and buildings, which previously separated the city centre from the waterfront (complete)

o

a new grid iron street pattern, green civic space and attractive boulevards are reconnecting the city with the waterfront to produce a space that will see the new Victoria and Albert (V&A) Museum at Dundee building situated next to Captain Scott's ship RRS Discovery

o

a new hotel (complete) and Malmaison is currently under development in the former Tay Hotel. There is also a proposal to create a new hotel above the railway station

o

there are plans in place to replace Dundee Rail Station and its surrounding area, including new civic space, creating the infrastructure for an integrated transport hub;



City Quay o

a focus on offices, leisure, residential, marina

o

750 new homes and apartments and more than 20,000 square metres of commercial space, including almost 10,000 square metres of modern office space divided into two waterfront buildings -

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River Court and City Court - has been created in City Quay (complete) o

further investment and development opportunities include the provision of support services for the adjacent Dundee Port activities, residential accommodation, hotel and the creation of a marina in a former dock; and



The Port o

the city is establishing itself as a centre for renewable research and development and this site will focus on renewable technologies industries

o

there are 25 hectares of available quayside land at the Port for renewable energy manufacturing

o

the replacement of Stannergate Bridge is part of the wider aim to improve access to Dundee Port primarily for HGV traffic.

The Waterfront project will also address issues relating future infrastructure requirements. The area will be broadband and wifi enabled to provide a compelling offer to businesses and citizens alike, and has committed to low carbon energy sources. Smart energy meters and lighting systems will also be required, and this thinking is already well advanced in the project. Therefore, there is a level of essential basic infrastructure that will be developed as a result of the Waterfront project.

Victoria and Albert at Dundee V&A at Dundee will be an international centre of design for Scotland. It will celebrate Scotland's historic importance in design and host major exhibitions of outstanding design, helping people understand their own and others' cultural heritage. The outstanding design by Japanese architects Kengo Kuma & Associates, working in partnership with Scottish practice Cre8architecture, was selected by a jury as the choice for V&A at Dundee following an international competition. The design is for a striking building that will come to represent Dundee and has the potential to be one of Europe’s most iconic buildings. 21

The museum and design centre will become indispensable to makers, teachers and industry nationwide as a place for the cultivation and exchange of knowledge, opportunity and design innovation. It will develop opportunities for diverse communities to engage with, learn from and enjoy design creativity, past and present. V&A at Dundee will play a vital role in Dundee's ambitious plans for regeneration, symbolising the city's high aspirations. It is intended that construction work will start on the V&A at Dundee site in 2013, with an anticipated opening in 2015. Design Dundee Ltd (DDL) is driving the V&A at Dundee project. DDL is a partnership between the V&A, the University of Dundee, the University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee City Council and Scottish Enterprise. The V&A at Dundee is expected to have a significant impact on visitor numbers in the city. Forecast attendances are approximately 250,000 – 300,000 per year, 5

approximately half of which will be visitors to the city . Figure 2.2: V&A at Dundee

Design in Action The University of Dundee (Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art) led a successful consortium bid to the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) to host one of 5

V&A at Dundee Visitor Numbers Review, SQW Limited, 2010

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four creative economy knowledge exchange hubs in the UK. The Scotland wide partnership also includes Edinburgh College of Art (University of Edinburgh), Universities of St Andrews, Abertay Dundee, The Robert Gordon (Gray's School of Art) and The Glasgow School of Art. Design in Action (DiA) is a £4.5m four year programme focussed on integrating design into business. It is a national network of organisations (academia and industry) committed to working in effective collaborations, through the ethos of knowledge exchange. The aim is to research, develop and evaluate new products, processes and services through the strategic application of design principles. DiA will drive innovation through the operation of a radical 'sandpit' methodology. The resulting design-led innovation will help to ensure that Scotland can maximise its capacity to operate effectively, contribute to the creative economy and compete in world markets.

Dundee Smart Card and National Entitlement Card The National Entitlement Card from Customer First is a single card that replaces many other cards previously required for different public services. Dundee City Council uses the card for: concessionary travel, card activated audio info at bus shelters, taxi travel for disabled residents, leisure membership, Passport to Sport, library membership, student matriculation, secure access, photocopying and printer credits at universities, cashless catering, credit union and sQuid. In January 2002, DCC decided to establish a single smartcard scheme - the Dundee Discovery Card - to join up a number of card based systems as a way of improving services. Eleven other councils were also developing their own smartcard schemes at the same time. Efforts were then combined in a Scottish Citizen Account Smartcard Consortium, which was chaired by DCC. Through the work of this consortium, it was shown that it was possible to develop a generic smartcard scheme, which could satisfy the wider requirements of the public sector. The National Entitlement Card (NEC) Scheme, part of the Customer First programme, was first launched to support the new National Concessionary Scheme, announced in December 2004. However it has always been planned as a public services multi-application smartcard as a means of accessing other public services including: transport, leisure, libraries, council payments and for use by young people 23

in other services, such as schools, transport, school meals, school libraries and proof of age and as their Young Scot card. The Scottish Government sponsors the NEC with local government being the delivery agent. The Improvement Service coordinates the council operations along with DCC, which delivers a managed service to support council users and council developments, as well as managing the third party NEC contractors/suppliers. The NEC is designed upon the principle of securely storing ‘credentials’ on a card for example, a travel ticket, a library membership number, an entitlement code (such as free school meal) - or by applying a nationally accredited brand to the card, e.g. Proof of Age Hologram. At present the major application for the NEC is in the national concessionary fares scheme which provides councils (who had previously administered their own local travel schemes) with the opportunity to work collaboratively, develop the new national smartcard scheme and incorporate national and local travel concessions into that scheme. Since implementation of the NEC throughout Scotland in 2006, over 1.7m cards have been issued with an average reduction in costs of £1.37 per card: savings of more than £4m have been accrued by delivering the card at a national level. In Dundee, the range of services currently attached to the Dundee Smartcard include concessionary travel schemes, library membership, matriculation cards for the University of Abertay and Dundee College, free school meals, leisure membership and the Young Scot card, Dundee is very much leading the development of Smartcard applications in Scotland, and has developed considerable expertise in structuring and managing the core infrastructure that supports delivery.

Other relevant initiatives City Wide Population Database The City Council created a city wide population database and called it the Citizen Account. This was done as part of Modernising Government Programme funded by the Scottish Government. It is based on matching and cleansing data on citizens 24

across all its records so that a Unique Citizen Record Number can be allocated. Dundee is one of the few Councils to complete this work and uses it based on informed consent to share data by its customers in full compliance with data protection legislation. This is a significant capability and enables the Council to use data it already holds to avoid the need for citizens to re apply for another service. Examples of its current use include automatically including children in the free school meal and school clothing grant scheme without parents needing to apply separately for it; pre qualifying disabled badge holders or occupational health service recipients for disabled parking bay line service based on already validating their disability entitlement and using their address that the street logistics are feasible. These are just some of the ways that sharing core data about age, address, income and disability can help individuals where they consent to share the core account data. Future ways would include companies and public services enabling unattended access or discounted entry to services based on public policy business rules. A social prescribing approach may see a health board pay for a leisure centre membership for someone based on their address and health status if the citizen shares their account with the NHS and Centre provider. The centre provider need not know the precise details but simply that the citizen has a qualifying condition the health board need simply approve the leisure centre as a bone fide participant in the scheme. The consent to share data scheme permits the council to share this data with other partners such as a bus company or health. Consent to share is requested at the point of applying for a National Entitlement Card and runs at approximately 74% of citizens. Putting the citizen account into the public domain so that citizens can be aware of it and be empowered to self serve, and letting service providers access it to deliver more integrated services should key features of Dundee's proposal. Addressing the ownership and trust ring issues will be a critical success factor in integrating services and allowing data collected for public services to enable interoperability between systems.

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Olympia Swimming Centre As part of the redevelopment of Dundee Waterfront, a new £24m swimming and leisure centre will be built on the site of the existing Olympia Centre. The building will have a Fitness Studio, Multi-purpose Room, Cafeteria, Wave Pool, Rapid River, Toddlers Pool, Training Pool, Dive Pool and Activity Pool with a moveable floor to facilitate various pool depths from 0 - 1.8m enabling diverse activities such as swimming lessons, shallow/deep aerobics. The new Olympia has been designed to be fully integrated with the city smartcard scheme. All door entry schemes and pre paid access readers are part of the scheme. One innovation is to enable regular users and authorised members unattended access outwith normal hours and immediate access through the door security system for pre paid customers. An example of this in practice is swimming club members being able to enter before and after normal public pool times for competition level practice. This is an example of developing the trust ring between citizens and owners of assets. Employers would not think twice about authenticating access to buildings to trusted employees. This simply provides a similar level to trusted citizens. Trust can be built up through regular use and other credentials that can be added to a citizen account.

Whitfield Life Services Building Whitfield Life Services Building is a £6M project to replace the existing leisure and communities and social work facilities in Whitfield and enhance healthcare and shopping facilities. Funded jointly by Dundee City Council and NHS Tayside, it will create a library, meeting room, social work contact rooms, GP surgery, other health treatment rooms, community pharmacy, school and community nursing. Whitfield Life Services Building is very much a vision of the future of public buildings and community facilities. Combining a range of functions and facilities, it will create a community hub, and a central access point for a whole host of community services.

Employabilty Pipeline Dundee City Council manages the Dundee Partnership’s Employability Pipeline, utilising a range of funding sources and focusing on support from the European Social Fund. The pipeline provides a range of services to meet the needs of all those

26

not currently in employment, from initial engagement, through needs assessment, specialist support, training, work experience, volunteering opportunities to job brokerage and aftercare. The programme is delivered by over 20 local and national organisations and uses a locally developed management information system, known as DEMIS (Dundee Employability Management Information System). DEMIS acts as an integrated client monitoring and referral system, which enables one organisation to register a client and other organisations, on referral to access the client’s information without having to re-register the client or repeatedly asking questions of the client. DEMIS is, to an extent, an example of how integrated systems can provide benefits to both local people and organisations – minimising the need for employability clients to repeat their details and allowing organisations to engage more quickly, effectively and knowledgeably with the client. It also acts as a monitoring system to track client journeys, monitor the effectiveness of projects and to identify positive outcomes.

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3. City Vision This chapter describes the future vision for Dundee based on consideration of existing strategic guidance and priorities and consultation with partners across the city.

3.1 City Governance City governance in Dundee is delivered through the Dundee Partnership. The Dundee Partnership pools together the strengths of key city agencies including Dundee City Council, Scottish Enterprise, Tayside Police and NHS Tayside, along with local academic institutions and representatives of the business, voluntary and community sectors, providing a vehicle for co-ordinated inter agency working. The Partnership was established in 1991 and since that time has led a range of successful projects making a major contribution to Dundee's physical and economic regeneration, and has evolved and broadened its remit to become the city's vehicle for the delivery of community planning. The work of the Partnership and its constituent members is strongly focussed on the delivery of the Dundee Community Plan, and more recently Dundee’s Single Outcome Agreement (SOA) – a contract between the city and the Scottish Government identifying priorities for investment and the key outcomes to be achieved across a range of policy areas.

3.2 Council Plan 2012-2017 The key reference source for the city is set out in The Council Plan 2012 – 2017 which provides a clear vision and values build around jobs, social inclusion and quality of life. This vision is that Dundee will: •

have a strong and sustainable city economy that will provide jobs for the people in Dundee, retain more graduates and make the city a magnet for new talent



offer real choice and opportunity in a city that has tackled the root causes of social and economic exclusion, creating a community which is healthy, safe, confident, educated and empowered; and 28



be a vibrant and attractive city with an excellent quality of life where people choose to live, learn, work and visit.

There is therefore a clear and unambiguous focus on jobs and job creation as the number one priority for the Council and their partners over the next five years – many of the other ambitions will flow from job creation for the citizens. It is also recognised that the vision will be delivered within a changing environment for local government and reflect the challenges and opportunities this brings.

3.2.1 The Jobs Agenda While this is clearly the number one priority, it is also recognised as the number one challenge. The City is seeking to meet this through an approach which includes: •

delivering the ambitious Waterfront strategy and other key regeneration projects;



building growth around the identified key sectors of life sciences; creative industries; renewable energy; tourism; financial and business services and retail; and



delivery of an employability strategy that will target those furthest from labour market to get them into employment.

3.2.2 The Social Inclusion Agenda The vision also recognises that in order for Dundee to be a truly successful city it must seek to promote a fairer distribution of opportunities that tackle the root causes of poverty, social and economic exclusion. This requires a more joined up and preventative approach – more efficient service delivery and early action to stop problems before they happen. The agenda will seek to focus on a range of issues including: •

homelessness and financial inclusion;



child poverty and education;



early years support and focusing on positive destinations; and 29



tackling drug and alcohol addiction.

This agenda will be delivered through new ways of working such as Total Place and through the partnerships developed under the Single Outcome Agreement.

3.2.3 The Quality of Life Agenda The vision recognises that quality of life is crucial both for the existing citizens and as part of the city’s USP when it comes to growing the economy; securing new investment and attracting visors and tourists. Priorities within the quality of life agenda include: •

maintaining access to the wide range of local services, including for the elderly;



improving air quality and reduce waste; and



continuing to improve the environment and the built and natural heritage of the city.

This agenda will be delivered by the Council and a wide range of partners within the single outcome agreement.

3.2.4 Delivering the Vision It is recognised that to deliver this vision, there must be new ways of working, including endorsing an agenda for change that includes: •

a decisive shift towards prevention;



a wider integration of public services at a local level driven by better partnership, collaboration and effective local delivery;



greater investment in people who deliver services through enhanced workforce development and effective leadership; and



a sharp focus on improving performance, through greater transparency, innovation and use of digital technology

All of this, of course takes place in a context of austerity and reducing public sector budgets which underscores the need for efficiency and partnership. 30

The City Plan has used this vision as the basis for developing its detailed single outcome agreement (SOA) with its partners and therefore sets the overarching approach to the delivery of services and a future for the city as a whole. It is recognised that there are a number of cross cutting policy and strategy documents that will provide a finer grain to the analysis, but it is clear that this Plan now sets the high level vision for the city for the next five years.

3.3 Dundee’s Single Outcome Agreement 6

The SOA represents Dundee Partnership’s shared aspirations for the city and sets out its priorities for improving the quality of life for the people of Dundee, as encompassed in Dundee Partnership’s vision outlined below. Dundee will: •

be a vibrant and attractive city with an excellent quality of life where people choose to live, learn, work and visit.



offer real choice and opportunity in a city that has tackled the root causes of social and economic exclusion, creating a community which is healthy, safe, confident, educated and empowered.



have a strong and sustainable city economy that will provide jobs for the people of Dundee, retain more of the universities' graduates and make the city a magnet for new talent.

The SOA summarises what it sees as the main strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for the city, as follows: •

strengths - growth in the knowledge economy sectors in education, science and creative digital media industries; regional employment, education and retail hub; public sector provides skilled employment for the city and is performing comparatively well; and strong track record on environmental issues in relation to recycling;



weaknesses - high concentration of deprivation; outcomes in relation to learning, health and employability which are significantly lower than the Scottish average;

6

Dundee Partnership, Single Outcome Agreement 2009-2012, May 2009.

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opportunities – potential to develop as a renewables capital (and other growth sectors); and strong consensus on the Dundee city development strategy based on the City Waterfront can provide the surrounding region with a high quality education, employment and retail centre; and



threats – ongoing effects of the recent recession increases the risk of deepening inequalities; and population projections indicate an overall reduction between 2006 and 2031 and an older age profile - reduced public sector funding but an increase in demand for services.

Four strategic priorities are contained within the SOA, including: •

jobs and employability;



children and young people;



inequalities; and



physical and mental well-being.

Flowing from the Partnership’s priorities, Dundee Partnership’s eleven strategic outcomes are set out in Table 1. Table 1: Dundee Partnership’s Strategic Outcomes Strategic Outcomes

Strategic Outcomes

Dundee will be a regional centre with better job opportunities and increased employability for our people.

Our communities will be safe and feel safe.

Our people will be better educated and skilled within a knowledge economy renowned for research, innovation and culture.

Our people will experience fewer social inequalities.

Our children will be safe, nurtured, healthy, achieving, active, respected, responsible and included.

Our people will live in stable, attractive and popular neighbourhoods.

Our people will experience fewer health inequalities.

Our people will have high quality and accessible local services and facilities.

Our people will have improved physical and mental well being.

Dundee will have a sustainable environment.

Our people will receive effective care when they need it.

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3.4 A Vision for Dundee as a Future City There is little to dispute in the strategic priorities for the city – employment, health and well being and vibrancy are what all cities aspire to provide. For Dundee, it is the agenda for change that offers most insight into a longer term future vision. More specifically, this agenda talks of innovation and integration of services, transparency, digital technology and a shift towards prevention, all of which are hallmarks of a successful future city. In seeking to develop a vision for Dundee as a future city, it has been necessary to take account of three key factors: •

the current vision and priorities for the city (as outlined above);



the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (see below); and



longer term aspirations for the city and its people.

3.4.1 SWOT Analysis Drawing on the existing strategic priorities for the city and the broad analysis of the city presented in Chapter 2, together with feedback from consultations with various stakeholders within the city, we have compiled a summary SWOT analysis.

Strengths Dundee has a range of strengths on which to build. These include: •

manageable city scale and strong track record of partnership working in the city;



skilled and highly educated public sector workforce;



strengths in key growth sectors such as digital media, life sciences and renewable energy;



vibrant higher education sector with strengths in research and well established industry links;



large student population;

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affordable housing;



central location within Scotland;



strong political commitment to the reduction of carbon emissions; and



strong history and tradition in innovation.

Weaknesses These strengths and balanced by some significant areas of weakness: •

slow rate of private sector employment growth and over reliance on the public sector;



highly concentrated pockets of extreme deprivation;



high levels of unemployment and economic inactivity, and the third highest per capita welfare bill in the UK;



poor performance on a wide range of health measures compounding deprivation issues;



growing levels of carbon emissions; and



negative external perceptions of the city based on deprivation and post industrial decline – this is consistently identified as a challenge to recruiting key talent from global labour markets in areas like digital media and games development.

Opportunities Current and planned investment in the city’s infrastructure is creating real opportunities for the future of Dundee. These include: •

the transformation of the Waterfront delivering substantial economic, social and environmental benefits;



the potential of the V&A at Dundee to significantly transform the city’s reputation and profile, increase visitor numbers and enhance the cultural offer;



the city’s existing expertise in integrating city services via the Dundee Smartcard and the National Entitlement Card; 34



the potential for significant development in renewable energy at the Port area;



local strength in digital media and life sciences – sectors that offer not only the potential for commercial growth but can also make a significant contribution to the city’s challenges;



the City Council already has a citizen account that is recognised across its full range of services, data sharing agreements with other statutory services and has detailed knowledge of the consent to share data with partners outside the public sector; and



Dundee has a national reputation for hosting innovation competitions and is a recognised centre of excellence in computer games and many of these companies have pioneered smartphone app developments. The Dare to Be Digital competition (University of Abertay) provides a successful template for running completions to exploit the shared data and smart networking infrastructure deployed in Dundee.

Threats Like all modern cities, Dundee faces a range of future pressures and threats. Some of these are common to all cities, while others relate more to Dundee’s specific characteristics and socio-economic structure. They include: •

ongoing pressure on public sector finance, an issue that is particularly acute in Dundee given the importance of the public sector to the local economy;



the risk of protracted economic recession and the potential impact on employment and inequalities in the city;



an ageing population creating an increase in demand for essential services in health and social care;



growing competition from other cities (UK and elsewhere) for inward investment and key talent;



rising levels of carbon emissions threatening to damage the environment of Dundee; and

35



failure to stimulate sustainable growth and achieve a more equitable distribution of opportunity could see future decline if Dundee does not keep pace with other UK cities.

3.4.2 Future City Vision and Priority Challenges Through the feasibility research and consultation process, a vision has been developed for Dundee as a Future City. This vision is based both on the need to achieve key economic, social and environmental aspirations as well as the imperative to address the city’s main challenges and opportunities. These challenges can be summarised as: •

addressing issues of concentrated and persistent deprivation;



improving the health and well being of Dundee’s citizens;



supporting growth in private sector employment, particularly in key sectors;



reducing carbon emissions; and



delivering more efficient and cost effective public services.

In framing a vision for Dundee as a Future City, and for the FCD, we have also considered some of the characteristics of successful future cities. These include cities that are: •

connected;



democratic;



citizen-focussed;



empowering;



transparent;



ambitious; and



accessible.

The vision for Dundee as a Future City puts at its very heart the people of Dundee. Cities are about people – people make cities what they are, and cities exist in the first place because they make life easier for people. Too often this simple truth is

36

overlooked in city visions that focus on infrastructure, economic growth and expansion. Future City Dundee will be a city in which: •

people have access to opportunities and to the services that they need, when they need them;



people are empowered to make an active contribution to the success of the city;



people are connected, building sustainable and vibrant communities;



people are proud of their city, and are engaged in public life;



people are enabled to live economically productive and healthy lives; and



people value their environment, and work to protect it through more sustainable living.

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4. City Systems 4.1 Introduction The preceding analysis has identified a number of clear priorities for Dundee future development: •

addressing issues of concentrated and persistent deprivation;



improving the health and well being of Dundee’s citizens;



supporting growth in private sector employment, particularly in key sectors;



reducing carbon emissions; and



delivering more efficient and cost effective public services.

It is important now to relate these challenges and priorities to key city systems as they are now, before considering how integrating systems might start to address these issues. Here we provide a brief overview of five key city systems, highlighting some of the opportunities and limitations of each. These include: •

transport;



energy;



ICT;



healthcare; and



education.

4.2 Key City Systems 4.2.1 Transport While Dundee sits within the Scottish motorway network, which connects the city to Perth, Stirling, Fife, Aberdeen, Inverness Glasgow and Edinburgh, it also has access to a wider transport network:

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regular scheduled rail services from the East Coast main line with connections to Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Glasgow, all within a 90 minute journey time;



direct air service from Dundee to London City;



one hour journey time to Edinburgh International Airport;



a developing port infrastructure;



comprehensive bus service network within the city; and



a growing cycle network within the city.

The transport system combines public and private sector operators including Dundee City Council, bus operators First Group, Stagecoach, National Express, Citylink and Scotrail as well as a range of private taxi companies. Dundee railway station is one of the busiest in Scotland with more than 1.4m passengers entering, exiting and interchanging annually, a figure that is forecast to rise with an estimated additional 500,000 annual visitors to the city once the V&A at Dundee opens. In Dundee significant investment in partnerships with local bus operators, Travel Dundee and Stagecoach, NHS Tayside, Scottish Enterprise Tayside and the Scottish Government has delivered one of the most modern bus systems in the UK. More than 95% of bus services are operated commercially providing a high frequency / high quality city-wide network with Travel Dundee operating a 100% lowfloor bus fleet since October 2004. The City Council has delivered a step change in waiting facilities and information systems that includes Real Time Passenger Information, Intelligent Traffic Signal Bus Priority, CCTV on all buses, timetable information at all stops, integrated journey planning on line and through interactive kiosks, high quality interchanges in the city centre and at Ninewells Hospital and all bus shelters and bus stop poles replaced. These improvements combined with Travel Behaviour Change marketing are yielding continual passenger increases and positive feedback through market research. As highlighted it the Scottish Government Transport Strategy 2006, “In 2005/06 the city's SmartBus programme expanded high quality facilities in key areas across the 39

city. 300 bespoke high quality shelters (from 920 stops in the city) that include real time information displays, good quality paper information and CCTV capability; accessible kerbing at all bus stops; and bus priority at all traffic signals in the city. The outcomes of this initiative were 15M transport trips made per annum and increases in patronage across routes of up to 9%” However, despite this level of basic infrastructure, the transport system in Dundee is not sufficiently well integrated. In particular: •

bus routes within the city are not as well connected as they might be, with the result that some areas are underserved at different times of day;



there is insufficient co-ordination between rail and bus provision, and while the provision of real time information at bus stops has helped, this is not connected to other forms of transport;



recent job growth in Dundee, combined with a decline in the working age population has led to an increase in the amount of in-commuting from neighbouring areas, increasing traffic volumes. The majority of car journeys are now ‘driver only’ (61% of all trips and 84% of commuter trips in the 7

wider Tayside and Central region) ; •

congestion is limited by the scale of the city, but is nonetheless evident around the Waterfront area and on the main arterial routes to and from the city; and



there are real concerns about how the transport infrastructure in the city will cope with the forecast increase in visitor numbers forecast as a result of the new V&A at Dundee.

As part of the Waterfront project, there are plans to develop a £13m integrated transport hub on the site of the city’s main railway station that will bring together rail, bus and taxi services in a single location, connecting also to park and ride facilities along the Waterfront all the way out to the airport and the Technology Park (near Ninewells Hospital). The city also has plans to develop an integrated transport hub in Lochee, one the city’s recognised neighbourhood centres, which will create the potential to enhance journey times, provide greater linkages into the city through

7

Tactran Regional Transport Strategy 2008-2013

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Lochee and provide real time passenger information, creating a safe multi-stop waiting area, integrated with the cycle network. However, the availability, connectedness and costs of public transport are also still barriers for many people living in deprived and peripheral communities. This affects a whole range of issues including access to healthcare, employment and education, and the Council has introduced subsidised routes and concessionary schemes to provide transport to those that most need it. This includes the taxi car scheme (currently delivered via the Dundee Smart Card) for those with long term disabilities to support trips to the hospital and subsidised bus routes in deprived communities, as well as the bus pass for over 65s. These are blunt instruments that apply blanket subsidies at considerable cost and do not allow finer grained targeting of concessions and subsidies where they are most needed.

4.2.2 Energy System 8

The 2020 Renewable Energy Roadmap sets out the Scottish Government’s ambition to commit to addressing the challenges of climate change and the growth of a low carbon economy. It has set ambitious targets for 2020 which include: •

100% electricity demand equivalent from renewables;



11% heat demand from renewables;



30% overall energy demand from renewables; and



500 MW community and locally-owned renewable energy by 2020.

In tandem with this, the Government is also seeking to reduce demand for energy. 9

The Energy Efficiency Action Plan established a target to reduce total final energy demand in Scotland by 12% by 2020, covering all fuels and sectors. Dundee’s energy system is broadly similar to those of other UK and Scottish cities, with a mix of commercial providers supplying heat and power drawn from carbon fuel sources. However, the city is actively exploring the potential in renewable and low carbon energy solutions. 8

Scottish Government 2011 9 Conserve and Save: Energy Efficiency Action Plan Scottish Government 2010

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At the Port area, there are plans for a new biomass plant intended to produce energy for heat and power to be supplied to the Central Waterfront area, which is being developed as a BREEAM Sustainable Community. Although the plant has yet to receive planning consent, the city is making clear commitments to low carbon energy. In addition, there are plan to develop a district heating system at the Waterfront area, with the potential to then extend a district heating network across the city, creating a more efficient and lower carbon means of distribution. Other relevant initiatives include Solar City Scotland, which is promoting the use of solar energy through a series of local pilots. More than 60% of the roofs in the city are south facing and therefore suitable for larger scale photovoltaic energy production. The V&A at Dundee is also exploring the potential to create energy from renewable sources in partnership with Scottish and Southern Energy (which is also a key partner in the Waterfront project). There is much to be done in relation to the city’s energy system, not least in relation to behavioural change initiatives and infrastructure that can reduce energy demand and use. Parts of the city infrastructure will be substantially upgraded at the Waterfront as part of the wider regeneration efforts.

4.2.3 ICT System Dundee has a advantageous status within the broadband economy by having the highest average broadband speeds in the UK (speedtest.net) and is currently having super fast (Fibrecity) broadband rolled out by H20, complimenting the fibre optic speed provided by Virgin and BT currently. The City has also submitted a bid to the DCMS Urban Broadband Fund for further investment into the infrastructure for superfast broadband. Facilities within the city include fibre connectivity infrastructure provided by Virgin Media, C&W, Brightsolid and BT. There is a whole host of providers delivering a multitude of services including VoIP, 3G, voice and data services working on this infrastructure.

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Dundee, where services were upgraded in March and April 2012, was among the first areas to benefit from faster cable broadband speeds as part of Virgin Media’s programme to double the speeds of most of its cable broadband connections With the Dundee Waterfront development, there are further plans to improve digital connectivity both within the buildings developed on site and in a series of new civic spaces. 10

Dundee also has a relatively tech-savvy populace. According to data from Ofcom , consumers in Aberdeen, Dundee and Edinburgh are among the most likely in the UK to have experimented with a variety of converged communications services. Adults in Dundee were more likely than the UK average (20%) to have experience of social networking sites (at 31%) and more likely to have used their mobile phone to access the internet (34%) compared to the UK average of 20%. The city’s two universities also offer a wide range of computing and ICT related sources, with the University of Abertay recognised as a global leader in computer games education. Dundee is also home to thriving computer games and digital media sector, and has produced top selling games such as Lemmings and Grand Theft Auto. However, there are two main issues that still affect Dundee: •

broadband and particularly wifi coverage remains patchy across the city, perpetuating the challenges of digital inclusion; and



citizen uptake of broadband was around 62% in Dundee in 2008 and although this has since increased, and is higher than the UK average, it is still far from universal. Indeed, there are the common issues with the distribution of broadband uptake, particularly amongst more deprived communities.

Again, the Waterfront developments and the DCMS bid could go some way towards addressing the infrastructure issues. Driving uptake is a bigger challenge. The council's annual social survey highlighted difference in home access to the internet in the order of 86% at best in the Ferry ward and an average of 52% across 10

Communications Market Report: Scotland, Ofcom 2008 (updated Dundee level data have not been published)

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community regeneration areas (see Figure 4.1, below). Feedback from a leadership conference of council managers suggested that most managers believe a significant barrier to channel shift to website transactions is digital exclusion on the grounds of age or poverty. Digital inclusion is therefore a key strategy to achieving channel shift. Figure 4.1: Household internet access in Dundee 2011

The Ferry

81.4

West End

75.3

Maryfield

65.6

Strathmartine

63.5

East End

55.1

Lochee

54

CRA Ave

52

North East

51.5

Coldside

50.6 0

20

40

60

80

100

The council's approach to digital inclusion is almost entirely bound up with the library service that provides 216 free access computers across the city with support available from trained library staff. Library staff have received training and are developing their strategy to also assist people set up accounts for email and other digital services. For example, a service is provided to the employability partnership pipeline to train people on applying for jobs online. The library service is preparing for an increase in activity due to the DWP's decision to aim for 80% of all interaction to be online between claimants and matters concerning the Universal Credit. This is part of a UK government programme called Digital by Default. The library service has identified being an access point to the internet as a key future driver of their service. A lean review of transactions in the libraries in 2010 identified that staff assisting citizens to log on to the free internet computers was a major activity and have submitted an IT bid to allow more self-service logging on to public access computers by customers.

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Dundee had Scottish Government, Public Library Quality Improvement Digital Inclusion funding in 2010/11, 2011/12 and now 2012/13 to buy tablets to help people access the internet. Including the purchase of the latest ones (money to be spent by March 2013) the Council has 40 ipads for loan as well as ereaders and ipod touches. This service is unique and has been mentioned recently in the Scottish Parliament. Dundee Library service offer ipads to housebound readers to help them get online and develop IT skills. This has proved to help with digital exclusion and case study supports this assertion - customers have been going online for the first time, reading library ebooks, using online resources, learning how to use digital banking, online shopping, family history research and simply keeping in touch with family and friends. As the ipads offer magnification they are also useful for visually impaired customers and the touch screen technology helps those with arthritis etc. They are also issued to Maggie's' Centre, Dundee Disabled Children's Centre, Nursing homes, respite care etc. They have bid for money to issue tablet computers to housebound clients to access eBooks and other digital content. The Council has submitted a bid to the IBM smartcities programme under the auspices of the Seven Cities Alliance to lead a review of new ideas to deliver digital inclusion.

4.3 Healthcare The healthcare system in Dundee was generally praised for its coverage, efficiency and quality. NHS Tayside has a long track record in meeting it targets in relation to waiting times, financial balance and patient safety issues. There are 22 GP surgeries across the city and a major research hospital at Ninewells (recognised as one of the best in the UK and one of the largest teaching hospitals in Europe) along with an active network of community clinics and initiatives to promote healthy living and provide local healthcare services. For example, recent pilots to incentivise pregnant women to give up smoking by offering shopping vouchers have proved very successful and are a good example of the kind of projects that could be facilitated through a Demonstrator. NHS Tayside also plays host to the Health Informatics Centre (HIC) working together with the University of Dundee. HIC has an international reputation for data linkage

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and management and provides a "safe haven" for data storage and analysis of large patient databases. It holds data for the whole population of Tayside and is expanding to include Fife - covering about 800,000 people all together. The proposal to link additional data to the health data already stored in HIC would provide a unique opportunity for Tayside to share intelligence across all public sectors maximising the potential of the data to deliver tailored and targeted services that are driven by reliable evidence. The NHS is also strongly supported by the higher education sector in Dundee, with both the University of Dundee and the University of Abertay active in health relate research and development. Digital Prescription data is already available in Dundee and is a key input to wider data analysis work at the University of Dundee, along with pioneering work in healthcare technologies for the elderly and mobility impaired. Life sciences is also a major strength in Dundee, with very active programmes of world leading academic and applied research working across the academic, public and private sectors. In common with the NHS as a whole, the Dundee region is facing a period of unprecedented financial constraint, following a long period of sustained growth. As a result, there is an urgent need to innovate new forms of healthcare support that can reduce costs without diminishing service quality. 11

NHS Tayside recognises this very clearly in its current strategic plan , and places high priority on reducing health inequalities in the city and in working with communities themselves to devise new solutions and become stronger and healthier.

4.4 Education Dundee has 36 primary schools and nine secondary schools distributed around the city and an active network of private and local authority run nursery provision. There are also two special education schools in the area. The High School of Dundee is the only independent school in the city.

11

NHS Tayside Strategic Plan – dates etc

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In common with most education authorities, Dundee faces challenges in raising attainment, addressing educational inequalities and managing financial pressures while maintaining quality of provision. Consolidation of the built infrastructure is hard to avoid, and schools are increasingly becoming multi-purpose community facilities – larger, but fewer and further apart. This creates access challenges as well as those related to growing school rolls, increased class sizes and stretched resources. School education is Dundee is supplemented by a strong tertiary education sector. The city’s two universities have well established and complementary teaching and research strengths covering areas such as life sciences, sustainability and medical technologies (University of Dundee) and computer games and digital media (University of Abertay). Along with Dundee College, one of Scotland’s largest further education colleges, the city has a student population (including part time) of around 38,000 – more than a quarter of the population. Both universities have a strong emphasis on knowledge exchange and the University of Abertay has a world leading reputation for developing real world training models in games and digital media (the annual Dare to be Digital competition). The University of Dundee is also leading one of the AHRC funded creative economy knowledge exchange hubs – the £4.5m Design in Action initiative – which is focussed on issues relating to design and innovation in a number of key sectors including, health and well-being, ICT and sport.

4.4.1 Data Sharing Dundee is already making some headway on integrating data across city system, and this work will provide a solid platform on which the Demonstrator can build. A number of city partners (Dundee City Council, NHS Tayside, Scottish Fire Service and Tayside Police) are working to develop a shared information database. To date the partners have agreed that it would be a positive step to establish such shared data and are currently pulling together enhanced area profiles for the city using data held by key partners - this focuses on the Community Planning Partnership areas and the areas of worst deprivation. Three sub groups have been established to take this forward - the first looking at creating an information sharing protocol and the

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other two focusing on key areas in which to pilot activity - vulnerable adults and early years. The aim is to use the data to address inequalities and all key public data holders are engaging in the process. The proposal recognises that data that provides the context for inequalities is largely collected and utilised by different organisations and not integrated or collated to provide a comprehensive picture of either individual or community profiles. The ability to combine these data sets would offer a unique resource to all the agencies involved and provide for the first time, an opportunity to understand in significant detail the population of Tayside and enable providers to target resources accordingly.

4.5 Integrating Systems There is a clear need for investment and innovation to upgrade and improve many of the components of these different city systems and to some extent that is already underway. Improvements in the road networks and built infrastructure will help address issues with traffic congestion, transport and energy use (for example through smart energy meters and use of low carbon energy in the Central Waterfront). Similarly, the ICT infrastructure will be improved both through the Waterfront regeneration initiative and the current bid to the DCMS Super Connected Cities Fund (should that be successful). Similarly, ongoing investments in healthcare and education are addressing issues with the physical asset base (e.g. new schools) and innovating more effective services (e.g. telemedicine and social prescribing pilots). Strong and active partnerships across the city (not least the Dundee Partnership) have helped to co-ordinate planning and resource allocation across a range of city systems and services. There are also some valuable connections and associations between systems and services that have been delivering value such as those in the employability pipeline and the Smartcard scheme. However, the degree to which city systems themselves are integrated remains limited, and there are several reasons for this:

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ongoing resource constraints both financial and human have limited the ability of DCC and its partners to take forward integration projects;



the timeframes involved in negotiating with different partners, public and commercial, has stalled progress in some areas (e.g. transport);



the degree of focus on major regeneration projects such as the Waterfront, has shifted priorities away from integrated systems projects; and



‘silo-based’ structures and issues with the inter-operability of different systems still act as a barrier to innovation in this space.

The FCD provides a unique opportunity to start to address these issues, but it is crucial that the project is developed from a clear understanding of the ways in which the integration of different city systems can start to address the challenges and opportunities that the research has identified. These challenges are summarised below as they relate to economic, social and environmental issues. Economic

Social

Environmental

Increase employment

Reduce deprivation and

Reduce carbon emissions

inequality Encourage private sector

Improve health and well

Reduce demand for

growth

being

energy

Boost innovation and

Enhance citizenship

Increase the use of low

enterprise activity

carbon energy sources

Increase efficiency and productivity

4.6 Integrating Systems The first question to be considered is which city systems could be integrated and, crucially, why? We have already identified a need for system improvements in, for example, the following areas: •

integrating the transport system to provide a more connected and accessible public transport network;

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introducing more low carbon energy sources into the energy system and developing more energy efficient means of distributing heat and power; and



improving the efficiency of health and social care services by reducing wastage and enhancing service delivery.



These are, by and large, necessary improvements within individual systems. If the headline challenges are to be addressed in full, there is a need for a more integrated approach that:



connects different services together in a way that promotes access, addresses exclusion and inequality and creates economic opportunity;



empowers the citizens of Dundee to play a more active role in the development and delivery of city services; and



creates efficiencies across city systems that will promote sustainable economic growth.

Transport and mobility The first system to consider is transport. Increasing mobility across the city is s crucial goal for three main reasons: •

transport remains a barrier to people engaging with employment opportunities and essential services such as healthcare;



reducing car usage and increasing public transport will help reduce the environmental impact of the city; and



a more integrated transport system will be better able to cope with city and growth and the forecast increase in visitor numbers.

Mobility is not just about public transport – it is about well being and quality of life and it is about economic opportunity. Most fundamentally, increasing mobility requires clear focus on behavioural change. This then suggests a need to integrate the transport system itself and integrate transport with: •

healthcare services;

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community services;



leisure and well being;



visitor attractions; and



employability.

Health and Well Being Improving the health and well being of the citizens of Dundee is a major priority. Improving mobility will help by encouraging healthier travel and improving air quality in the city. It can also help address barriers to the effective delivery of healthcare services. However, there are aspects of health and well being that are better supported on a day to day basis by communities themselves rather than professional services, and there is a need to facilitate and encourage a more active community role in social care and well being. This then suggests a need for better integration between health and social care and transport, and also with wider leisure facilities (and cultural opportunities) that are known to promote healthy living and quality of life. It also suggests a need to connect communities more effectively and stimulate more active citizenship by integrating with community services.

Energy Identifying clear opportunities to integrate the energy system with other city systems is more challenging. Many of the priority issues for energy relate to how energy is produced, distributed and consumed. Production and distribution are essentially issues for the energy system rather than issues for system integration. Energy consumption is different, and requires a strong focus on behaviour change to encourage citizens and organisations to reduce their energy use. Smart energy meters and warning devices that indicate heavy energy use are useful tools and are already planned as part of the Waterfront developments. Importantly, there is a need for the planning system to examine the need for stronger insistence on the use of low carbon energy and smart metering within new developments, and this is an issue that will again be tackled as part of the Waterfront project.

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Big Data It is crucially important to consider the role of data in all of this. All of the current city systems collect data in different ways. This is not co-ordinated and as a result huge opportunities are being missed. A more integrated data collection and analysis system, collating data from across transport, energy, health and social care, cultural and leisure could offer real insights into user behaviour, leading to far more efficient and effective design and delivery of services. There is also very significant commercial value in these data. Therefore, there is a clear rationale for integrating: •

transport;



health and social care;



culture and leisure; and



energy and planning.

There is also a clear rationale for integrating back-end data systems to provide far better city intelligence. These recommendations are fully supported by the consultation work with city partners.

4.6.1 Citizen Focus While there are good reasons for seeking to integrate these systems, this approach still has little to say about the role of the citizen. In effect, it remains a vision of services developed by professional organisations and provided to citizens, albeit in a more efficient and connected way. Many of the public and private sector partners in the city felt that there is a more radical vision to be grasped here – one that seeks to release the latent potential for innovation and enterprise across all of Dundee’s communities, while using public services as the initial driver of engagement. Integrating transport, health and social care and cultural and leisure services will require new infrastructure to support that integration – a new platform for service development and delivery. Such a platform could be delivered as a Council-led project delivered in partnership with other key (mainly public) service providers. At 52

this level, the platform would be mainly data driven and would be concerned with coordinating services and integrating data. Such an approach has undoubted value and could deliver greater efficiencies in the delivery of city services, a more accessible set of services for citizens and many economic opportunities. However, it is considerably lighter on effecting behavioural change and on building the participation of citizens in the shaping the future of Dundee. As such, this approach enjoyed only limited support amongst city stakeholders. Instead, there was greater interest in an integrated services platform could be developed on an open access basis such that it becomes a platform for all kinds of services whether delivered by the public sector, private enterprises or by the communities themselves. This would, in effect, develop an infrastructure that can: •

support the integration of all services within the city;



provide an interactive, user-led platform for community involvement in service design and delivery;



offer opportunities for private and public sector operators to innovate new products and services; and



develop an open data platform for understanding citizens’ engagement with city systems and support and inform future innovation and ongoing improvement.

This high level proposition can be shown to fit with the identified challenges for the city, as shown below. Economic

How addressed

Increase employment

Integration of transport system will contribute to employability Data driven innovation will promote commercial opportunities, creating employment

Encourage private sector growth

Data driven innovation will promote commercial opportunities, creating employment

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Boost innovation and enterprise

Data driven innovation will promote

activity

commercial opportunities, creating employment The integrated services platform can become a space for new enterprising ventures, helping to create new businesses and encourage innovation

Increase efficiency and

More effective services will reduce costs

productivity

and improve productivity across the city economy

Social

How addressed

Reduce deprivation and inequality

City platform will integrate transport and well being in ways that promote healthy living and help employability Integrated platform will improve access to services and facilitate better targeting at those in greatest need

Improve health and well being

Increased mobility will reduce reliance on car journeys, promoting healthier alternatives Integrated platform will improve access to health services and facilitate better targeting at those in greatest need

Enhance citizenship

Integrated platform will provide a space in which citizens can begin to interact in a more meaningful way with city systems, informing change and developing self sustaining approaches

Environmental

How addressed

Reduce carbon emissions

An integrated transport system will encourage more use of public transport with subsequent reductions in emissions

Reduce demand for energy

The Integrated platform provides opportunities for a wide range of initiatives to encourage positive behaviour change in energy use and demand

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Increase the use of low carbon

Development of low carbon energy sources

energy sources

within the Waterfront and their subsequent roll out across the city

4.7 Alternative Options The broad approach outlined above is only one option, and others were considered in the course of the feasibility work. Various ‘smart city’ initiatives and programmes from elsewhere were examined both for inspiration and to identify key lessons. While space does not permit a detailed account of these, a number of broad observations are important to consider: •

many smart city projects and programmes are essentially collections of small scale pilot projects and initiatives – there are fewer whole city programmes;



there is a very strong focus on low carbon projects, often targeting opportunities in areas like smart metering, district heating systems and integrated transport offers to reduce car journeys;



some smart cities are essentially infrastructure projects aimed at developing internet connectivity, low carbon energy systems or environmentally friendly modes of transport (e.g. electric cars and buses with charging points);



there is an often striking lack of focus on people, with many smart cities initiatives still essentially focussed on infrastructure or professionally developed and delivered services – community empowerment is a relatively rare feature; and



some of the most successful initiatives are very bottom up in feel, rooted in communities and strongly focussed on behavioural change.

While these can be seen as broad generalities, they do offer important principles and learning points that have influence and informed Dundee’s approach. Taking into account these findings, and existing planned investments in the city, a number of alternative options for the FCD project were rejected in the consultation process. These are outlined below.

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Smart Energy Various suggestions were made for projects that focussed on energy use in the city. These tended to focus on two broad areas: •

the development of energy infrastructure that could produce and distribute low carbon energy across the city, including the development of combined heat and power, biomass plants and district heating systems; and



initiatives that aimed to encourage positive behaviour change amongst consumers and businesses regarding their use of energy, typically involving smart energy meters as well as smart street lighting systems and low carbon public transport vehicles.

These project ideas were rejected on a number of grounds: •

they tended to involve innovation in the city energy system, with far less focus on the integration of multiple city systems. As such, they offered a poor fit with the TSB criteria for the FCD competition;



the improvements in energy infrastructure that were proposed, while of obvious value, are essentially activities that are either already planned, or that should be part of the ongoing development of the city energy system. For example, low carbon energy systems will be part of the Waterfront developments, and energy providers are already piloting the use of smart energy meters as a way of reducing final demand. These ideas were therefore not considered to be adding value to existing plans; and



energy projects, while valuable, were considered to be addressing only part of the overall challenges facing the city – and mainly environmental challenges.

Connectivity Improvements The consultation work did identify an interest in using the FCD to upgrade connectivity in the city by improving broadband coverage and developing wider wireless connectivity across the city. Again, these are infrastructural improvements that are necessary but not sufficient conditions for a future city, and are the subject of other developments and initiatives. 56

The Waterfront project will be fully wired with high speed broadband and wireless connectivity, and DCC’s current bid to the DCMS Super Connected Cities Fund is also targeted at upgrading the telecommunications infrastructure in the city. While the outcome of that bid is still unknown, it was decided that the FCD project should not seek to address areas that are already considered or underway. Finally, Dundee is relatively well served by connectivity. The bigger challenge is in the uptake of broadband – a challenge that is not addressed by simply upgrading infrastructure, but rather requires compelling service offers to encourage uptake.

Low Carbon Public Transport Reducing the carbon emission from public transport is a crucial goal for all countries and cities, and as alternative fuel sources and new low carbon vehicle technologies become increasingly robust, there is much to be gained by shifting to lower carbon alternatives such as electric, hydrogen and hybrid vehicles. Two main issues were identified with these proposals: •

first, these again represent innovation in a single city system (transport0 rather than integration of multiple systems. As such they fail to meet one of the core criteria for the FCD competition;



the economic benefits of these projects were unclear, other than offering opportunities for manufacturers of low carbon vehicles; and



while valuable, low carbon vehicles do not address all of the issues with transportation - namely the willingness of citizens to make greater use of public transport at the expense of private cars.

This last point is important, and the need for a more integrated transport system in Dundee was a very consistent finding of the study. This requires an integrated transport hub (planned as part of the Waterfront project), effective park and ride facilities to reduce car journeys into the city by commuters (also planned), an integrated smart ticketing system and initiatives to encourage more use of public transport.

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While the last two of these suggestions are not sufficient to meet all of the criteria for the FCD, they were considered important enough to form part of a wider proposition and, as a result, they each feature in Dundee’s proposal.

Data Integration The opportunities in greater integration of city data are well documented. Cities produce vast amounts of data across all areas of city systems, and the value of these data is really only starting to be addressed. As an illustration, a recent report by McKinsey estimated that If US healthcare was to use big data creatively and effectively to drive efficiency and quality, the sector could 12

create more than $300 billion in value every year . There was therefore considerable interest in the notion of creating a shared city data system that would aggregate data across multiple systems and provide value to: •

service providers in the city through more effective targeting and greater efficiencies;



citizens through the provision of real time data and information about the city; and



commercial interests seeking to develop innovative products and services.

This is an idea with considerable merit, but is only a part of the overall picture. In and of itself, an integrated data platform will not meet all of the requirements of the FCD and will not address all of the key challenges facing Dundee. It will, however, be an important component, and one that can add considerable value to the city and the three main stakeholder groups identified above – service providers, citizens and businesses.

12

Big data: the next frontier for innovation, competition and productivity, McKinsey and Co, 2011.

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5. Approach to Integration 5.1 Introduction The rationale for a high level Future City Demonstrator proposition has been outlined in Chapter 4. This proposition can be summarised as follows: •

the development of an integrated citizen services platform that brings together transport, health and social care, city facilities and visitor attractions and potentially energy into a single integrated and connected system;



the platform has the potential for further development to support the integration of other city systems (public and private) through an open access design;



the platform should be citizen-centred, and facilitate a user-led approach to the design and delivery of city services; and



the platform should be supported by an open data platform that provides transparent and accessible data about the city’s systems and how they are used.

In considering how such a proposition might be delivered, a number of key questions must be addressed: •

how do citizens engage with such a platform?



what are the infrastructural and technological requirements and how can they be delivered?



what are the practical applications of this integrated system and how do they help address city challenges?



how should such an approach be managed, and what are the implications for city governance?

This chapter addresses these questions and provides a more detailed account of how the project could function. It has been developed through consultation with key partners in the city and in close collaboration with DCC. It is intended to build on key

59

strengths within the city, in both the public and private sectors, and presents both short term opportunities as well as a longer term vision for a new way of developing and delivering city services.

5.2 The Proposition in Detail The central focus for Dundee’s FCD is the citizen, and the ultimate aim is to evolve a smarter, more needs-driven and responsive open access platform for the development and delivery of services for the people that live, work and visit the city –the Future City Dundee Smart Space. While the long term vision for this platform is for an open, transparent and integrated system that facilitates and supports innovation across all communities, the Demonstrator project can only deliver a pa of this vision. It should therefore focus on two main overarching objectives: •

developing the open platforms for service development and delivery and for sharing city data; and



engaging citizens through a series of products that improve essential services (often public services) and address the key challenges facing the city.

5.2.1 How will citizens engage? The citizen’s route into the Dundee Smart Space is through a Citizen Account – a unique account for each citizen in Dundee that contains essential basic data about that individual: •

age;



address;



health status; and



employment/ income status.

The citizen is then also to add data to this account (e.g. contact information, skills, interest etc.) and control the level of access to those data. The account belongs to the citizen and not to the Council or any other service provider. This is crucial to the success of the project as it must not be seen as a Council project, but rather as a

60

city project. While essential public services may be the first route into the smart city model, and the Council the initial driver, the ultimate goal is to evolve a platform through which public, private and community organisations and individuals can all engage. The Council’s existing expertise in managing the Dundee Smartcard and the National Entitlement Card for Scotland will be extremely important in realising the Citizen Accounts. The Smart Space is a virtual space – a platform – into which service providers integrate through the use of open standards and with which citizens engage through secure authentication technologies (accessed via smart cards, apps and biometrics).

Figure 5.1: Future City Dundee Citizens • essential public services (transport, healthcare, social care, education, benefits) • private services (transport, retail, energy, telecomunications, leisure) • community

Visitors • essential public visitor services (transport, information, leisure) • private services (retail, leisure, entertainment, hospitality) • community

Future City Dundee Public Services: • transport (+ concessions) • healthcare • social care • culture/ leisure • education • community safety

Private Services: • transport • healthcare • social care • culture/ leisure • energy • communications • retail

Community services: • volunteer support • hyper-local services • social care • community safety

Citizens can access their account in a number of ways: •

via their smartphones (a Smart Citizen app);



online via their PCs; and



via smart cards and public smartcard readers (akin to ATMs).

Through the Citizen Account, citizens can then grant access to service providers to that data in return for access to essential services, in much the same way as a 61

Facebook user grants access to application providers in return for use of a particular application. For example, a citizen would grant access to the Council (as a trusted provider) to their account, and the Council would then add ‘credits’ according to that citizen’s level of entitlement to public services. For a citizen on low income, this might include: •

concessions for travel on public transport;



free school meals for their children;



information and access to benefits/ tax credits (anticipating the move to the Universal Credit);



care services; and



concessions for access to public leisure facilities.

Similarly, citizens might also grant access to providers such as energy companies to access better deals on energy (and concessions such as winter fuel allowances) or access to smart energy meters, or to local retailers which have integrated new or existing loyalty card schemes with the citizen account, building up credits to be redeemed against future purchases. Different levels of access can be given to different providers depending on the level of trust between citizen and provider, and the citizen’s interest in engaging. For example, a citizen might provide a local business seeking to sell services access only to their email contacts, while the NHS may be granted full access. These are examples only, but serve to illustrate the range of services that could integrate via the Future City Smart Space. The basic structure for citizen engagement (and the transfer of credits and pre-payments) is shown in Figure 5.2, below.

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Figure 5.2: Future City Dundee Citizen Engagement Model Citizen interface Citizen

Prepayment

Online

Smart card/ readers

Citizen app

Credit transfer

Citizen Account Data Citizens/ families

Sponsors/ community

Service providers

Services Dundee Smart Space (integrated citizen services platform)

Building Citizen Engagement While the Demonstrator will need to work to engage citizens in the benefits of the Citizen Account model, it is not starting from scratch. 69,746 citizens already use a Dundee Smart Card, and will be a key target for early transition to the Citizen Account. Of these, 30,000 are over 60 (travel pass) and 10,000 are young people (as part of the Young Scot scheme and university and college matriculation cards) and uptake amongst those with disabilities is also strong (c 5,000). Nevertheless, there is a need to engage other sections of the community, most obviously those between 25 and 60 years, with a priority focus on those in deprived areas. There are two primary routes to this engagement: •

via the set of products and services that will be piloted through the Demonstrator e.g. employability product, social prescribing, Dundee HealthNET and the integrated travel ticket; and



via the very active network of Local Community Planning Partnerships (LCPPs), their outreach resources and the strong links into a wide range of community groups and organisations.

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Of these, it is the first that will prove most compelling, as there will be clear benefits to citizens in signing up to the citizen account: •

it will remove the need to apply or present themselves repeatedly and to different agencies to receive their entitlements to different services;



they will be able to access a range of services that save them money and time, afford access to a wider range of services and improve their quality of life;



for family members with caring responsibilities, there is the potential to top up accounts to provide support; and



the interface mechanisms (cards, smart phone apps etc) provide a stigma free means of accessing benefits and concessionary services such as free travel and free school meals.

The benefits of the Citizen Account will be communicated to citizens via the services with which they engage and through a wider programme of community engagement driven through the network of LCPPs and their community partners.

5.2.2 Delivery Infrastructure The infrastructure will consist of: •

the Citizen Accounts with associated security and authentication protocols and an integrated payments system that allows transfer of credits into accounts alongside pre-payments;



the Smart Space platform that sits above existing city systems, extracting data to support more integrated services;



a ‘back-end’ data platform that collates and integrates the data from the Smart Space and the underlying systems and provides necessary data analytics tools and an open access data platform; and



public infrastructure to read smart cards and phone apps on all forms of public transport and in relevant public facilities and spaces.

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Figure 5.3: Future City Dundee Core Infrastructure

Citizens Citizen Account Citizen App

Smart Card

Online access

Dundee Future City Smart Space Transport system

Culture and Leisure

Health and Social Care Private Services

Energy provision

Other Public services

Community Services

Data Integrated Open Data Platform Commercial applications

Innovation test-bed

Public information Real time service information via citizen app

Service Providers Co-ordinated data to inform planning and delivery

Citizen Accounts The key issues with the establishment of the Citizen Accounts are: •

security to provide citizens’ data with the necessary protection;



authentication to ensure secure access to the account and the services that it facilitates while controlling for abuse and fraud;



inter-operability across different systems, including transport, healthcare etc;



payment mechanisms for transferring credits (cashless) and making prepayments into the accounts; and



integration HOPs for reconciling payments to service providers (e.g. bus companies).

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Smart Space Platform The Smart Space platform is the primary vehicle for integrating systems. There are three broad approaches that could be taken to integrating these systems. •

the first is to attempt to migrate existing platforms onto a shared platform, a task that would involve substantial work in developing the appropriate protocols to facilitate integration;



the second approach would be to merge systems to create a new integrated system. This is potentially a bigger task than the first option and could create numerous difficulties in reconciling systems and protocols; and



the third, and preferred option would be to develop a platform that sits on top of the existing system and extracts the necessary data from each system to deliver integrated services. This is the approach favoured by most technology providers involved in smart city infrastructure development.

The third option effectively side steps issues of different standards by pulling data into an umbrella platform which can be developed based on an open access model such that: •

citizens and different organisations and service providers can access the platform and need only interact with a single system; and



it is portable and can be adapted to work with systems in other locations.

Therefore, the Smart Space Platform should be designed and developed with the following broad principles in mind: •

it should sit ‘above’ existing systems, extracting the necessary data based on the associations between the different datasets (using defined APIs);



it needs to be able to work with existing standards such as ITSO for transport;

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it should be developed with open access in mind such that a wide range of service providers can access the platform to provide services to citizens; and



the design should use open standards to support the potential for future transfer to other cities.

Data Platform The Smart Space will generate a huge wealth of potentially valuable data that can provide a fine grained analysis of the ways in which citizens interact with the city. For example, travel data can be associated with destination information (i.e. what services facilities were accessed when people get off the bus) and data on healthcare. It can also tie patterns to individuals in a way that is currently not possible – the bus companies know how many over 60s travelled where on a bus pass, but they do not know anything about who made these trips and what other services they accessed. The value in such datasets has been highlighted already, with well known examples such as Google’s analysis for the Centre for Disease Control in the US which identified clusters of flu outbreaks based on data on browser searches for symptoms. For service providers within the city, more detailed analysis of how services are used and how they interact with other city systems will be of considerable value in: •

identifying opportunities for service development and improvement;



reducing inefficiencies in the system, thereby generating cost savings;



providing citizens themselves with potentially value information about the city (e.g. real time traffic data);



identifying commercial opportunities for innovative businesses;



informing community-led services; and



providing a test-bed for new and innovative solutions to city challenges.

The back-end data platform will need to designed in a way that takes full account of information sharing protocols, data protection issues and, potentially, public concerns about civil liberties. 67

In terms of access to these data, there are obvious issues to address relating to anonymising the data to protect privacy and establishing ownership of different datasets. The Demonstrator will also need to develop tools for extracting, analysing and presenting data in a way that provides accessible intelligence for data users.

Public Infrastructure The project will require a range of new and upgraded infrastructure within the public realm to facilitate citizens’ interaction with the citizen accounts and the Smart Space, and to gather the necessary data to feed the system. This should include: •

upgrading existing smartcard readers on buses and in taxis to permit authentication via smartphones a well as smartcards (also for car parking);



upgrading existing traffic sensors to automate data collection (currently this needs to be extracted from the sensors manually and transmitted via a handheld device to the central traffic management system);



public card readers and access points for smartphones through which citizens can access their accounts;



broadband across Dundee and wi-fi networks in civic spaces to provide essential connectivity;



public information points to provide real time information (in addition to that provided via the citizen app); and



point-of-sale and door entry systems in key public buildings and facilities (e.g. offices, libraries, cultural facilities, leisure facilities etc).

The technology to support the development of this infrastructure already exists, but the extent of the roll out will depend on available resources. Some areas are relatively inexpensive (for example the traffic sensors can be upgraded for around £100,000) while others are obviously more costly (e.g. investment in ICT connectivity). However, some of the more expensive infrastructure is already being developed through other routes, and the Demonstrator will add to this investment.

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5.2.3 What products and services can be delivered? The full vision for the Smart Space cannot be delivered within time frame and resources of the Future Cities Demonstrator Competition. Instead, the demonstrator should focus on building the necessary technology platforms and testing the model through a series of service modules addressing: •

mobility – encouraging greater use of public transport through integrated smart ticketing and more targeted concessions and incentive schemes to encourage use of public transport;



health and well being – encouraging healthier living and improving public health by integrating healthcare with services such as transport and leisure;



community innovation – encouraging community-led innovation via reward and incentive schemes, and open access to the service platform for innovative projects and services;



digital inclusion – encouraging uptake of digital services through the provision of smartphones and tablets, customised to prove ‘always-on’ access to essential services via the Citizen Account and Dundee Smart Space; and



SME innovation – facilitating the development of new innovative services and products through a series of innovation competitions, hack days and open access to city data.

We have expanded upon these service modules below providing examples of the kinds of products that might be developed and delivered.

Mobility module Objective: to encourage greater use of public transport through integrated smart ticketing and more targeted concessions and incentive schemes. Products/ Services:

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1. Integrated smart ticketing – using the smart card/ app interface as a single ticket for use on all forms of transport (taxi, buses, trains) with concessionary schemes and incentives; 2. Car freedom – transferring money previously used to run a car into a mobility account for use on all forms of city transport; 3. Pupil transport – schemes to provide transport to pupils travelling to school, again delivered via the mobility account; 4. Employee transport schemes – local employers can transfer credits to employee’s mobility accounts to support use of public transport; 5. Social inclusion – travel credits for job seekers, those with long term disabilities, low income families etc. Companies can also sponsor long term unemployed by offering travel credits for the first three months at work; 6. Car sharing – facilitating via the Smart Space platform car sharing clubs at local level; and 7. Real time transport information – delivered via the citizen app and providing real time information on public transport, traffic and parking in the city. Delivery mechanisms: •

establishment of a mobility account within the citizen account allowing credits to be input from public and private sector providers and from individuals (topping up mobility credits);



ITSO compliant readers for all modes of transport to read smart cards and smartphones;



integration HOPS between accounts and readers and transport provider’s administrative offices to reconcile payments; and



travel information app within citizen app portal.

Integration with other modules: •

links to health and well being by linking transport to leisure use (gyms etc) and to hospital/ GP visits;



offers platform for the development of community-led transport schemes through local car clubs; and 70



digital inclusion module provides access to these services for the most excluded sections of Dundee’s population.

Outcomes: •

increased use of public transport and reduced car use – carbon reduction



savings for individual users/ citizens;



cost savings for transport providers through better use of user data;



Council savings through more targeted use of concessions and travel subsidies (e.g. subsiding the individual and not the route); and



improved mobility around the city through a more integrated transport offer and real time travel information.

Health and Well Being Module Objective: to encourage positive behavioural change by facilitating access to healthcare services and physical activity to promote healthier living. Products: 1. Social prescribing – building on NHS Tayside’s pilot work, the citizen account will link social prescriptions to concessionary access to transport and leisure facilities to encourage uptake of healthier living; 2. Community care – via the Smart Space and incentive schemes sponsored by local companies and charities (and possibly the public sector) this product will facilitate volunteer input to community care activities; 3. Health transport scheme – connecting transport credits in the mobility account to health visits to facilitate access and reduce wastage through no shows; 4. Dundee HealthNET – real time digital information system delivered to citizen apps and containing information about appointments, cancellations etc and delivering reminders for appointments to reduce no shows;

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5. Childcare vouchers - credits added to the citizen account which can be topped up to pay for childcare services and linked to employability and transport initiatives to support the unemployed in getting back to work; and 6. Telemedicine pilots – using the Smart Space platform as a means of delivering new and emerging telemedicine solutions to reduce hospital admissions and improve community care. Delivery mechanisms: •

integrated data platform to combine health and transport data and support system integration to connect user to healthcare services more effectively



health information system delivered via smart citizen app and piloted through digital inclusion smartphone/ tablet giveaway



POS and door entry systems in key facilities such as leisure facilities, libraries etc.

Integration with other modules: links into the mobility account to facilitate access to health and well being opportunities and services and into community-led innovation to support volunteering activities. Outcomes: •

more effective delivery of local healthcare services;



increased uptake of healthier lifestyles and physical activity thereby reducing future healthcare costs;



reduced wastage in the healthcare system; and



increased community-led care provision.

Community Giving Module Objective: to harness technology as a means of supporting local engagement and address key social challenges across Dundee. Products:

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1. Community Volunteering – participants register with the programme through their citizen account and identify their skills that they would like to offer as a community service. The programme also supports partnerships with the private sector through sponsorship and incentive schemes; 2. Employment Management – the programme supports ongoing relationship management for employers that actively engage the long term unemployed, allowing incentive schemes (e.g. free travel pass of first two months at work) to be built in via the citizen account; and 3. Tackling obesity – community engagement programme that allows individuals with weight related health challenges to advance their level of fitness by engaging with community activity networks such as walking groups. This links directly into the social prescribing product in the health and well being module and can again incorporate incentive schemes to encourage healthy living. Delivery mechanisms: •

linkages to the mobility account as a component of the citizen account allowing credits to be input from public and private sector providers and from individuals (topping up mobility credits);



community credit system for managing service facilitation and logging;



hyper-local media platform for delivering local programme content to the community; and



citizen account inter-operable across the Community Giving programmes.

Integration with other modules: community credits achieved through positive activity will be transferrable to discounted travel across the public transport system and the obesity and community volunteering link into health and well being programmes. Outcomes: •

increased levels of healthy activity leading to a reduction in weight-related illness for participants;



uptake of long term unemployed in employment programmes;

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increased level of volunteering and engagement across the Dundee community; and



private sector sponsors actively engaged with the Community Giving module.

Digital Inclusion module Objective: to encourage uptake of new digital technologies amongst the most deprived communities in Dundee

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Products: 1. Smartphone and tablet distribution – providing members of deprived communities with digital access via smartphones and/ or tablet computers, building on the pilot work in Dundee’s libraries (providing older people with tablets on which to read books) 2. Digital education – reaching into communities to raise awareness and understanding of the Smart Citizen Account and the Dundee Future Cities Smart Space and the pilot products in the Demonstrator Delivery mechanisms: •

partnership with device manufacturers and network providers to develop a format for the devices that will reduce the likelihood of theft (e.g. by making them an essential route to essential services (e.g. benefits); and



working with Local Community Groups and the Local Community Planning Partnerships in Dundee to raise awareness and encourage citizen engagement.

Integration with other modules: •

linked to all modules and a means to encouraging uptake of the Smart City concept amongst the communities most in need.

Outcomes: •

more engaged citizens;



participatory democracy;



user-led design of services; and



community development.

SME Innovation module Objective: to create, fund and support the development of a community of SME developers, creative designers and citizens with the expertise of developing Future City technologies, services, applications and open data platforms.

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Products: 1. Citizens Ideas Portal –crowd source new ideas focussed on the issues and challenges facing the citizens of the city; 2. Citizen Hack – A hackathon that takes the concepts and ideas from the citizens portal to produce ‘seed’ projects for the Smart Space platform; 3. Platform Accelerator Competition – business-led competition that funds and aggregates a consortium of Dundee’s SMEs, global platform companies, stakeholders and investors to develop the various modules of the Smart Space platform; 4. Future City Open Living Lab – building towards a local community of practice of collaborative developers, SMEs, partners, citizens, investors and stakeholders the Future City living lab will use the Smart Space platform to create an experimentation environment where users and producers can cocreate new Future City innovations; and 5. Internship Fund – Supporting the inclusion of talented citizens, students and graduates the internship fund is focussed on creating new work opportunities for each of the funded projects. As the project matures this will also be extended to fund expertise to commercialise the projects to an international market. Delivery Mechanisms: •

an online portal which provides citizens the opportunity to suggest the improvement of existing and development of new community services. Information can be uploaded or accessed through multiple channels: Mobile, Smart TV, Digital Kiosks, Smart Screens, online etc;



bringing together like minded software developers, graphic designers, web developers and designers into a 48 hour hackathon which focuses on prioritising and developing innovative ‘citizen-centric’ projects;



through a staged approach, a series of competitions will be planned to coincide with the development of platforms modules. Initially the first series of competitions will consist of developing the delivery infrastructure and APIs and architecture on which to build the new modules. A level of new

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development of the existing city systems will be needed to create the open data streams, on which to build the Smart Space platform; and •

the living lab will create the environment and provide resources to allow developers, designers and citizens explore, discover and experiment the emerging usages, behaviours and market opportunities of a Smart City environment. The Lab will allow users and producers to work in a collaborative and co-operative environment with the goal of developing Smart City technologies, platforms, applications and services as well as providing knowledge transfer, expertise, funding, desk space, lab space, computing resources and information hub.

Integration with other modules: •

provides the system to create, develop, test and maintain the Smart Space platform including the development of each of the modules; and



offers the system for the citizens and communities to propose and prioritise new service modules focussed around their critical social and environmental issues and challenges.

Outcomes: •

allows the community to develop their skills towards new work opportunities;



helps to create new start-Up companies focussed on developing Future City technologies;



creates a centre of excellence for the development and delivery of Future City platforms; and



increases the injection of new investment, external from the region, to develop and build expertise in a macroeconomic market.

Other Linkages - Energy Consultation with energy suppliers also identified an interest in working with the Dundee FCD in a number of areas in which the Citizens Account could be utilised to deliver benefits related to energy services to the citizens of Dundee. These could include: 77



direct payment of bills for energy and energy services;



introducing incentives and applying credit or benefits for energy savings achieved by citizens, measured via Smart Metering;



accessing services and advice for reducing energy use and costs, for example Green Deal services; and



distributing the benefits of community generation or energy saving schemes to in a targeted manner.

5.2.4 How will the project be managed and delivered? The delivery framework for the Dundee FCD must recognise that responsibilities across the project need to clearly allocated to ensure success. There are essentially four key elements to the project delivery: •

a project executive which sets direction for the project (Project Steering Group);



a systems development team providing technical guidance on bringing the citizen platform together;



a design team that supports innovation in service development; and



a programme management team with responsibility for ensuring successful delivery across the five modules.

The design team can create and support an innovative design environment that sits at arms lengths from the overall project delivery. This cam allow for the appropriate level of innovation in developing and designing programmes, bringing together collaborative teams and taking account of the need to feed back into the integrated citizen platform (and citizen account). The overall framework is illustrated below.

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Figure 5.4: Delivery Framework

Project Executive Overarching governance should be provided by a Project Executive, chaired by Dundee City Council and comprising representatives of the main city partners and stakeholders (public and private). This should include: •

Dundee City Council;



Scottish Enterprise;



Leisure and Culture Dundee;



Universities of Dundee and Abertay;



NHS Tayside;



private sector partners such as transport providers, local technology companies and energy suppliers; and

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community groups.

The Executive should be responsible for establishing clear governance and policy frameworks for delivery and leading the partnership development that will underpin the project’s success. The Executive could then be supported by a range of Special Interest Groups, overseeing each of the five main modules, plus one group to oversee the development of technology platforms and the work of the systems development team. The composition and membership of these groups can be more fluid to allow a flexible approach to co-opting the necessary expertise, but would need to have representation from Dundee City Council and one other member of the Project Executive. Figure 5.5: Project Executive Structure

Project Executive Dundee City Council (chair) Scottish Enterprise NHS Tayside Universities Private Sector and Community Groups

Special Interest Groups Technology Development

Mobility

Health and Well being

Community Giving

Digital Inclusion

SME Innovation

Performance Monitoring

Dundee has a strong platform on which to build such a partnership. The Dundee Partnership has been in place for many years and provides an effective mechanism for co-ordinating city planning and resource allocation, and involves all of the representatives identified for the Demonstrator Project Steering Board. Strong partnership working is also well established with transport providers and public agencies and across a range of partners concerned with health care and health promotion in the city.

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The city also has a strong track record of working with the private sector and has very supportive private sector partners in companies such as NCR, Michelin, DC Thomson and Bright Solid.

Systems Development Team The systems development team will draw upon expertise within the Council (in particular the IT and National Entitlement Card Teams) and will work with external technology providers on the delivery of the technology platforms. Procurement of external expertise and technology will be the responsibility of Dundee City Council (see below) and this team will be supported by and report to the Programme Manager and the Technology Development sub group of the Project Executive.

Programme Management Team The project will need a small team of staff to manage and drive forward the overall programme and each of the product modules. An outline staff structure is provided below: Figure 5.6: Programme Management Team Structure

Project Executive Programme Manager

Mobility Module Manager

Health and Well Being Manager

Community Giving Manager

Digital Inclusion Manager

SME Innovation Manager

Performance Manager

Project Support Staff x2

These roles are expanded below: 1. Programme Manager - to oversee the entire programme with expertise in strategic level integration, technology aware, business minded, project management skills.

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2. Module Managers (x5) - one person to project manage each of the key modules – working closely with the design team and staff drawn from across the Project Executive partners. 3. Performance Manager – to co-ordinate the collation and analysis of performance management data to assess the progress of the project towards its objectives and outcomes. 4. Project Support Staff (x2) – to provide administrative and monitoring support to the project. The Programme Management Team will also need support from core functions within Dundee City Council, including, but not limited to: •

finance and legal services;



procurement specialists;



the National Entitlement Card team;



transportation staff;



community planning support staff;



corporate planning;



community outreach services; and



economic development.

Design Team The design team could be less a team as such, but more a series of fluid and collaborative project teams brought together by calls from the Project Executive to develop products and services for the citizen platform. The design teams could be located within a physical space in the centre Dundee (within the District10 development at Seabraes Yard). This could become a creative space for innovation and a central focus for the innovation competitions hack days to be delivered through the SME innovation module. This ‘design house’ could then form an important legacy from the Demonstrator project, building both public and private sector support to continue its ongoing delivery.

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Project Management and Procurement The project should be managed by Dundee City Council as the authority in receipt of the TSB funding. In practice, this means that the Council will be responsible for: •

the employment of core staff to deliver the project;



the establishment of the governance structure and any necessary legal arrangements together with ongoing secretariat support for the Project Executive and Special Interest Groups;



the procurement of necessary services, including the development of the technology infrastructure; and



reporting to TSB on the progress and impacts of the Demonstrator.

5.2.5 Constitutional Issues A crucial aspect of the Dundee Future City vision is the drive to build community engagement and ownership, and shift mindsets away from traditional models of service development and delivery towards a more user-led model. As such, the Future City Smart Space cannot be Council owned. It must act as an independent and neutral space in which the Council will have a very substantial role, but will be neither the sole provider nor the owner of the platform. Therefore, while Dundee City Council should be the initial driver and manager of the demonstrator project, operating through a Project Executive (as described below), the Demonstrator should also seek to develop a new Community Social Enterprise model to transfer ownership of the Smart Space to its users – the citizens of Dundee (including local businesses and public sector and community organisations). This constitutes a considerable innovation in the way that city systems are governed and managed, and is a central part of Dundee’s vision of citizen empowerment. Of course, the success of a community ownership model will depend on uptake of the platform and the services that are available. While the long term vision is for a platform that will encompass all city services, it would be naive to argue that this can be achieved simply by developing and promoting the platform. Instead, the value of the platform should be demonstrated through the provision of essential (public) services that will: 83



deliver value to citizens by facilitating access to employment, health living, community services and mobility;



help address key social and economic challenges in the city; and



engage the private sector both through commercial opportunities and opportunities to exercise corporate social responsibilities.

A number of possible constitutional alternatives are available ranging from cooperatives, charitable trusts and SCIO models to companies limited by guarantee. The most appropriate model will be examined as the demonstrator progresses, subject to: •

necessary legal advice on the implications of different constitutional options, for example in relation to the ownership of data;



ease of implementation and the potential costs and benefits of the various alternatives;



the level of uptake and engagement with the demonstrator; and



the views of the partnership.

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6. Potential Impacts 6.1 Introduction A core element of the feasibility study was to identify the potential for the project to generate positive impacts in terms of its influence on the: •

economic performance of the city;



quality of life for the citizens; and



environmental impact and resilience of the city.

While the guidance also requests that quantitative impacts are presented if possible, the innovative nature of the project and its delivery context makes this impossible to achieve at this time. Generally, while it is possible to identify how the types of changes envisaged might generate beneficial impacts, there is no reliable basis upon which to estimate the likely scale of this influence. This reflects a number of factors. First, critical to the underlying success of the project will be its ability to: •

generate citizen awareness of, and engagement with the project across the envisaged modules; and



encourage positive behaviour change of those citizens opting-in.

The project partners are committed to making substantial effort to fully engage citizens, both in terms of those in key target groups and amongst the Dundee citizenry as a whole. However, the extent to which this will be achieved, and the time taken to effect positive behavioural changes that have observable consequences, are both highly uncertain. Second, not only is there a paucity of benchmark data in the public domain on how changes elsewhere have impacted when similar project modules have been implemented in isolation, there is no previous example of how an integrated and highly innovative project of this type might perform.

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Third, the focus on city level systems integration presents particular challenges in that much of the impact anticipated will be released through synergy benefits from the interaction of different project modules; for example, the project includes a number of modules which are expected to enhance an individual’s ability to access job opportunities be it through improved awareness of training/employment opportunities, increased mobility, or easier access to appropriate support services from public sector agencies, etc. The extent to which these synergies are realised is again uncertain. Finally, while the feasibility study has identified the key thematic areas in which innovative actions will be pursued, the detailed design of individual modules has yet to be determined, making it difficult to assess how these will interact and generate impact. In view of these, and other factors is, the recommended approach agreed with Dundee City Council and its partners is that a major early focus will be to design performance monitoring systems and procedures that that will run in parallel with the physical implementation of the project. This is to generate relevant information during project implementation as well as facilitate a final project evaluation. The project offers an ideal opportunity to test the strength of the linkages between the project and its modules, and ultimate impact generation. Indeed, this might be considered as one of the main innovations that emerges from the demonstration project, in that it will be designed to generate performance data that will be of value in: •

considering the ultimate success of the project and the ways in which it has realised benefits across the three thematic areas of economic, social and environmental impacts;



informing the partners’ future decisions on where further action and investment is required; and



providing good quality quantitative, benchmark data that might be useful to other cities in considering their investment priorities.

There will be three main components to this framework which must all be addressed during the design stage, viz:

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performance indicators;



systems and procedures; and



governance and management.

6.2 Performance Indicators The first component will be to agree the range of indicators which are to be included within the performance monitoring framework. While in principle there is a wide array of indicators which are potentially relevant, the final selection must: •

reflect the ultimate aims and objectives of the project and the various routes to impact that are being pursued and at a minimum must include. This implies a need for indicators of economic, social and environmental performance at the city level;



be clearly and unambiguously defined, and communicated to all relevant project partners with a role in data generation or in performance management;



capture the intermediate outcomes from the “routes to impact” being pursued, to enhance understanding of how impacts have/have not been achieved; and



balance the costs of generating data against the value of that data in performance assessment and decision making.

Even at this early stage in project implementation, a wide array of indicators is potentially relevant, reflecting the integrated nature of the project and its ambitions to address multiple issues. At a minimum, there will be a need for indicators of economic, social and environmental performance. For economic performance, the indicator menu must reflect the various ways in which the project might impact on the city’s economic performance. For example, there is expected to be: •

direct economic benefits to SMEs engaged in SME Innovation activity, such as innovation and market outcomes which can translate into additional employment and GVA at the city level;

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indirect economic benefits through making Dundee a relatively more attractive location for investment, either by mobile companies already based in the city and for potential new inward investors. Similarly, the enhancing the quality of life in Dundee will assist in the retention and attraction of key skills to enable a competitive economy;



indirect economic benefits through making Dundee a more efficient base for productive activity, for example by improving connectivity or easing recruitment shortages;



economic impacts from new start up activity, as a key project focus will be to encourage the provision of new and innovative services by community enterprises or new for-profit businesses;



cost savings in service delivery to project partners, for example through more efficient targeting of support at disadvantaged individuals, etc;



income generated for the city through the commercial exploitation of the performance data generated.

Thus an initial indicator list might include the following: Some Potential Indicators of Economic Impacts Value of income derived from commercial exploitation of data Increase in income generated from public service provision Number of SMEs/community enterprises engaged in innovation activity Number of SME/community enterprises introducing new products and services Number of new SME/community enterprises formed to provide services Value of new mobile investment attracted to/retained in Dundee Value of sales generated from new products/service introductions Cost savings to business through improved efficiency Jobs generated or safeguarded for city residents through project activity GVA generated or safeguarded for the city through project activity

There is also a multitude of possible routes through which the project will have a positive impact on the quality of life for Dundee’s citizens. For example, through: •

enhanced community cohesiveness via the Community Giving module which seeks to promote local engagement through volunteering and other channels; 88



increased income for disadvantaged households, either through better access to benefit entitlements, or to services which enhance the employability of disadvantaged individuals/groups;



improved health outcomes through better targeting of, and access to, appropriate preventative and ameliorative services; and



better awareness of and improved access to education and other learning opportunities.

Some initial suggestions are given below: Some Potential Indicators of Quality of Life Impacts Number of citizens engaged in the project Numbers reporting easier access to existing partner services Numbers accessing new services provided through the project Numbers accessing services to enhance employability Numbers reporting increased use of cultural/sporting/education and other facilities % of citizens reporting easier access to service provision % of citizens reporting involvement in volunteering activity % of citizens reporting that community activities have improved % of citizens reporting that it is easier to access services % of citizens reporting that they can influence service provision in the city % of citizens of working age in employment % of citizens reporting that the quality of life in the city has improved Changes to key indicators of citizen health Increased household income for those in target groups

Environmental impacts will be driven largely by the scale and nature of behaviour change that is effected. The main ones for this project will be generated mainly via improving the efficiency of the road network, encouraging modal shirts from private to public transport and improving service integration. An initial list of possible indicators is provided below. Some Potential Indicators of Environmental Impacts Modal shifts in favour of public transport % of citizens reporting increased use of public transport Journey time improvements Reduction in carbon emissions

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Improvements in traffic flows at key points in the city Reductions in levels of key pollutants Reduction in traffic accidents Reductions in business transport costs

6.3 Systems and Procedures The performance monitoring framework must make explicit: •

what data are required: the final selection of performance indicators must indicate the data needed if these are to be adopted;



how data will be captured. Efficient and effective data generating mechanisms must be identified where these make appropriate use of existing arrangements in areas such as air quality, public transport use, etc;



the frequency and scheduling of data capture efforts, where there is likely to be a distinction between those generated via: o

ongoing data capture through, for example, traffic sensors or Smart Card use

o

discrete exercises, such as primary surveys focused on specific beneficiary groups;



how performance data are to be stored, collated and interrogated, including procedures for data protection and transfer protocols;



the frequency and schedule of full performance reports.



who has overall responsibility for proper implementation of the performance monitoring framework; and



what is the detailed role of other players in the performance monitoring framework.

These factors must be described fully in guidance materials, which are agreed and shared across all partners.

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6.4 Governance and Management If maximum value is to be derived from the performance monitoring information generated then it must integrate with other aspects of project governance and management. As discussed in Chapter 5, it is intended to establish project governance and management structures, as illustrated below:

Project Executive Dundee City Council (chair) Scottish Enterprise NHS Tayside Universities Private Sector and Community Groups

Special Interest Groups Technology Development

Mobility

Health and Well being

Community Giving

Digital Inclusion

SME Innovation

Performance Monitoring

Key features that will be incorporated include the following: •

overall responsibility for the design and implementation of appropriate performance monitoring arrangements will rest with the Project Executive. All performance monitoring reports will also be substituted to the Project Executive for review and approval;



a Special Interest Group will be established, comprising representatives of each of the other Special Interest Groups, as well as external experts, to ensure that monitoring arrangements are fully integrated with the work of the other Special Interest Groups. The main purpose of the Performance Monitoring Special interest group will be: o

input to the design of an appropriate performance monitoring framework;

o

ensure that suggested procedures are consistent with and build on existing partner monitoring efforts

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o

provide assistance in accessing data generated and held by partners

o

review the scope and content of Performance Monitoring Reports, and make recommendations to the Steering Group on the implications for future action; and



a Performance Manager will be appointed to oversee the day to day implementation of performance monitoring systems.

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7. Barriers 7.1 Introduction In a project as complex and challenging as this, there will inevitably be issues and barriers to overcome. We have considered these as they relate to four broad areas •

organisational and institutional issues;



technological issues;



public interest issues; and



resource issues.

7.2 Organisational and Institutional Issues The project is very much based on effective partnership, and although Dundee does have a strong track record in this respect, a number of organisational issues can be expected. These include: •

reluctance on the part of key partners to engage with the project;



reconciling commercial concerns with local priorities;



political buy-in to the model;



issues with data sharing;



perceived loss of management control.

Reluctance to engage To a degree, this risk or barrier is partly mitigated by the consultation that has taken place in developing the project thus far. However, expressing interest in a project at the conceptual level is not the same as committing to work in partnership on its delivery, particularly at a time when resources are so constrained. This issue must be tackled at an early stage in the process, and is the primary responsibility of Dundee City Council. Partners will be motivated to engage if they 93

can see benefits in three areas: it can facilitate service development and delivery; it can lead to service improvement; and it can save (or earn) money. The previous chapters have outlined the ways in which the project can generate these benefits, and this must be the basis on which the partnership is firmly established. Further work will be required beyond the feasibility process and the funding bid to establish in more detail the roles and responsibilities of different partners and how these can be supported.

Commercial concerns In some areas of the project, it is possible that the concerns of commercial (or indeed non-commercial) organisations might conflict with the projects objectives for the city. For example, many transport operators are developing their own travelcard schemes and will also be working toward the implementation of Scotland’s national version of the London Oyster card – the Saltire Card. Many partners will also operate on a geographic level that extends beyond Dundee to regional, national and even international markets. They may therefore face issues in developing provision (or concessionary schemes, for example) specifically for Dundee when they are operating national initiatives. These are issues that will require careful negotiation by the Programme Manager with the support of the Project Executive. Dundee City already has strong relationships both at national level (for example through their National Entitlement Card services) and with commercial interests (e.g. bus companies). Therefore, there are existing structures for these negotiations to take place.

Political buy-in The model that it proposed by the Dundee FCD is a radical shift in the delivery of city services and, as such, it could raise concerns from those charged with the delivery of public services. The primary risk is that a move towards a community ownership model is perceived as a loss of control over public service delivery. In fact, the model does not imply any loss of control. Public authorities retain their responsibilities for service delivery and are simply engaging with their service users in a different and more sophisticated way. As the model starts to democratise

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service access and provision, and encourage others to provide services that are complementary to those offered by the public sector, there is considerable potential for organisations such as the Council to step back in areas where the community itself (or indeed private providers) are meeting needs. This is a model that is very much in line with the UK Government’s thinking on the Big Society, and as such does not represent any move towards privatisation. However, these messages must be clearly communicated at political levels within the city to ensure broad support. This is a Council responsibility and their leading role in the Steering Board is an appropriate vehicle through which to ensure this level of engagement.

Data Sharing Establishing suitable arrangements for the sharing of information and data across the partners will be a challenging aspect of the project. However, again Dundee has already gone some way down this road with the agreements established for the City Wide Population Database. As early task for the governance work in the project will be to establish not only the data sharing protocols that will underpin the project, but also agreements regarding data ownership, and revenue sharing models that will support the commercial exploitation of any data. For example, we have already discussed the considerable commercial value that will lie in the datasets created through the Demonstrator, and the partners will have opportunities to generate revenue from the commercial exploitation of these data. Any such arrangements will need to be agreed by the relevant partners with any stake in the data, and revenue sharing models developed. Data sharing arrangements will also have to comply both with national legislation on data protection, and with the policies developed by individual organisations with data handling responsibilities.

Loss of Management Control This is closely related to the issues around political opposition, and relate to concerns that partners may have about the potential to lose a degree of control over

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management decisions. Again, this is based more on perception than reality, but should nonetheless be acknowledged. Although the model opens up the potential for a wider range of actors to be involved in the design and delivery of city services, individual agencies retain their control over their own services. By virtue of their involvement with the Project Executive structure for the Demonstrator, they also have a voice in decisions about the project itself.

7.3 Technological Issues Operating as an aggregator of large amounts of real time data as well as processing, authenticating and correlating user information, the development of the Smart Space platform produces a series of complex technical design issues. These can be addressed by adopting a structured, methodical approach to the development of the system design.

Open Standards Underpinning the development, integration and interoperability testing of the Smart City Citizen Account, Smart Space Platform, Public Access Infrastructure, Data Platform Development and Product Modules is the adoption and use of an Open Standards Policy when procuring new software products as well as the development of new services, platforms, products and infrastructure. With many government departments locked into using proprietary, vendor specific systems, issues can happen when extending them. Extending legacy systems is a key milestone in the development of the Demonstrator. For instance, creating a new datastream from a legacy database could create a barrier if the system uses proprietary file formats and or data structures. 13

The UK Government’s Open Standards will be used as a guide when procuring and developing new platforms, infrastructure and products.

13

Open Standards Principles: http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/sites/default/files/resources/Open-StandardsPrinciples-FINAL.pdf

96

Standards for Creating Smart City Services With the objective to develop needs-driven, community owned, open access platforms, adopting data structures that are common to other public sector organizations opens up information interchange between digital systems. Future proofing the development of the demonstrators Web APIs, using common data interchange standards (e.g. SOAP protocol), allows interchange of data amongst the proposed platforms and modules that make up the Smart Space platform. Additionally this opens up the prospect of connecting with separate Future City systems. Metadata will be used to describe the data flowing between each of the platforms modules and creates the opportunity of producing a comprehensive set of data analytics and visualization schema which can be used to generate value from the stored data. The European Union Smart city report

14

and Effective Service Delivery Standards

15

will be used to classify new services as developed through the Citizens Ideas Portal. Using these standards reduces issues that may occur in the technical integration of new citizen services.

Open Data Platform Whilst scoping the architecture of the Open Data Platform each design team will be encouraged to collaborate and work closely with the newly formed Open Data 16

Institute . This Institute has been established to incubate, nurture and mentor new businesses exploiting Open Data for economic growth. To facilitate accelerated platform development, open datastreams and APIs need to be developed to allow the prototyping of new services. Open datastreams allows each design team to create and develop applications to exploit Open Data for economic growth.

14

European Union Smart city report: http://www.smartcities.info/files/Smart_Cities_Research_Brief_Standards_for_classifying_services_and_related_info rmation.pdf 15 Effective Service Delivery Standards: http://www.esd.org.uk/ 16 Open Data Institute: http://www.theodi.org/

97

Authentication & Security Protocols Access to the Smart City Citizen Account, will initially begin with the use of the Dundee Smart Card (National Entitlement Card). The existing Card Management system Implements the international and national ISO27002 & HMG Security Policy Framework standards for information security. With a smartcard that’s segregated into two separate sections: Integrated Transport Standard Organisation (ITSO) products for smart ticketing and stored travel credit and the National Entitlement Card (NEC) products, each section of the card is protected by its own unique authentication, encryption and security protocols. The ITSO sector of the smartcard is reserved for transport encoding and ticketing and the NEC sector contains access to local authority (or other agreed public sector) products. This security system will be adopted, developed and evolved into the Citizen App and Online access. Protection of the citizens privacy is key as is the need for establishing confidence in the development of security controls on new access technologies, platforms and interfaces like the Citizen App. The project should, wherever possible, use existing or emerging standards in consultation with the relevant standards body. This will ensure the long term sustainability of the scheme and also reduce commercial concerns regarding the development of potentially competing standards or proprietary systems. For example all mobility modules will need to use existing Integrated Transport Smartcard Organisation (ITSO) standards and in areas such as developing ticket types for use in taxi and car club areas or in developing tickets by mobile phone app the project should engage with ITSO’s governance scheme for the development of new standards.

7.4 Public Interest Issues There are two main barriers to consider in relation to public interest: •

lack of interest amongst the public in engaging with the project; and



public concerns regarding data security and privacy.

98

The first of these is addressed through the citizen engagement work described in Chapter 5, and by the provision of compelling services. The programme Management team will also work in close partnership with a wide range of city agencies with close relationships with Dundee communities. Public concerns about data security and privacy are potentially very challenging. Although there are technology solutions to security issues, it must be recognised that high profile data losses have seriously damaged public confidence. This is one of the reasons that the project has adopted a user-centred approach and design. In particular: •

the citizen owns their account;



the citizen gives permission to different providers to access their data; and



the front end design is crucial such that this does not feel like a public sector initiative – people share their data all the tie through sites such as Facebook.

This ‘opt-in’ approach might rise concerns that the uptake of services might drop off as a result of public concern about their data. We believe that this risk can be mitigated in a number of ways: •

first, the platform will not, at first, simply replace all other routes into services . Until such time as the model is sufficiently embedded, many essential services will continue to be delivered as they are;



secondly, the product offers must be sufficiently compelling to drive uptake – this is a critical success factors for the project; and



one of the aspirations is that the Dundee Citizen Account can be the route into the new Universal Benefit once introduced (as a means of facilitating access). This would make it a ‘need to have’ service for those claiming benefits.

In relation to this last point about the link to the Universal Benefit registration process, it is important to note that this would require data sharing agreements with the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP), the feasibility of which has not yet been explored.

99

7.5 Resource Issues The Demonstrator is a complex, multi-partner project with a multitude of stakeholders committing time, people and, potentially, investment. As such the demands on city resources will be considerable, and a number of issues could arise. •

although the project will require a core staff, it will also need to draw upon staff expertise across a very wide range of private and public sector partners. With growing financial constraints across the economy, this must be acknowledged as an issue;



the total budget of £24m is sufficiently large to support a range of activities, but will need to link to other investments in the city to realise the full potential of the Demonstrator, particularly in respect of core infrastructure requirements (e.g. connectivity, transport, public realm etc);



some of the costs associated with a complex and innovative project such as this are difficult to specify precisely at the feasibility stage. Indeed, the Council will be required to follow due process in public procurement and therefore the costs of different aspects of the technology cannot be finalised.

These issues can be addressed in the following ways; •

stakeholder input can be facilitated both through strategic level engagement with the project (via the Project Executive or Special Interest Groups) and by addressing issues in the project that will deliver direct benefits to the stakeholders. For example, an SME might be motivated to commit resources if they can see a clear route to commercial benefit and a public sector service provider would do likewise if the pay off was significant cost savings;



the project has already demonstrated its links and interdependencies with other investments in the city, both existing and planned. These links can be facilitated both through the central co-ordinating role of Dundee City Council and the partnership established around the Demonstrator; and



cost development at this stage will necessarily involve a degree of estimation. The approach should be to begin with known elements (e.g. staff

100

costs, and some technology elements that can be more clearly specified at this time) and work up from there.

7.6 Risks While no project is without risks, appropriate procedures should be put in place to ensure early identification of issues that are impacting adversely on progress and achievement of ultimate project objectives. We have also identified a range of potential risks along with mitigating actions to minimise either the likelihood of occurrence or their impact on the overall quality and timeliness of project impacts being achieved. A preliminary risk assessment matrix is provided below. Risk Assessment Issue

Odds

Mitigating Action(s)

Organisational structures and staffing Delays/difficulties in Low o recruiting project management and delivery o staff o Illness of team member/staff turnover

Low

o o

Delays in establishing appropriate governance and management structures

Low

o

o

Difficulties in securing appropriate representation of public/private sector

Low

Delays/difficulties in moving to community ownership model

Med

o o

Funding and financial performance Cost overruns Low

Make use of appropriate recruitment assistance early notification of potential opportunities to existing partner staff consider temporary partner secondments co-opt from within partners to carry out absentee’s tasks make use of external expertise to fill temporary gaps make preliminary preparations for Steering Group prior to TSB decision being communicated continue meetings of Feasibility Study Steering Group as interim mechanism until such time as new Programme Executive is operating early communication to all public sector partners build on existing public and private representation on the Feasibility Study Steering Group

o

conduct early options appraisal to determine feasibility of community ownership and most appropriate

o

secure early political commitment to community ownership

o

regular reviews of financial performance against budgets close monitoring on financial progress by each SIG seek partner contributions to fill shortfall re prioritise project components identify and seek access to other

o o o o

101

Failure to attract private Med o sector sponsorship for specific Modules Failure to secure DCMS High o Super Connected Cities funding Technical design and implementation Delays in delivery of Med o technical solutions Failure to find appropriate

o Med

o

Med

o

technical solutions Failure to implement/delays in implementing technical

o

innovations

sources of match funding immediate engagement of local business networks and representative organisations investigate/approach other sources of match funding, including Scottish Government contractual obligations on delivery times in all procurement close monitoring of contractor performance reassess project priorities and need for alternative approaches close monitoring of implementation progress and early warning of delays assess need for additional resource to accelerate implementation

Participation Failure to attract citizen participants

Med

o o

o Failure to attract SME innovation ideas of sufficient quality

Low

o o

Failure to secure buy-in of transport and other key service providers Failure to attract private sector interest in new service provision

Low

o

Low

o o

Low o Failure to attract private/public sector interest in data use Data Security and misuse of systems Data confidentiality breached

Low

o o

Systems used for illegal/unacceptable purposes Project Performance

Med

o o

Project impacts not achieved to expected extent

Med

o o

Project Dependencies Failure to deliver key infrastructure as part of the

o

Performance SIG to regularly review numbers on citizen uptake increase animation effort directly and via other partner activity increase animation effort directly and via other partner activity ensure widespread knowledge engage with Scottish Enterprise key account companies in appropriate technology areas early engagement of main transport providers in Dundee early dissemination of information on opportunities engage business via existing networks and representative bodies early dissemination of information on data availability and potential uses

security protocols will be established for data access and transfer. review security arrangements and address identified weaknesses monitor service use ensure users aware of implications of mis-use early agreement to and implementation of performance monitoring systems; and regular review of performance monitoring data to identify areas of weakness/where action is required. maintain close relationship Waterfront delivery team and

with early 102

Waterfront Regeneration Project

o

notification of changes to planned activity assess alternative delivery options

Managing Risk The partners should implement appropriate risk management arrangements which are fully integrated with all other aspects of project governance and management structures. In summary: •

overall risk management responsibility should be held by the Project Executive, based on receipt of regular risk reports from each of the Special Interest Groups;



each Special Interest Group should then be required to: o

prepare a risk assessment matrix covering all activity within their respective areas of design and delivery responsibility

o

prepare regular reports on risk management for submission to the Project Executive; and



the linkages between performance and risk monitoring should be made explicit in the final performance monitoring framework, with the aim being to ensure no duplication of effort in generating relevant data or in reporting.

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8. Finance Total investment of £24m will be made available to the successful bidder in the Future Cities Demonstrator Competition, and the question for the feasibility to now consider is whether or not the project as defied can be delivered within these resources. This is not a straightforward question. First there is the considerable challenge of defining costs for projects that have not yet been fully developed (some of product modules will be subject to change as they are developed. More importantly, the procurement process, while outline budgets can be set, will be competitive, and the actual final costs cannot be identified with precision in advance of the tender process. However, on the basis of the project outlined above, we suggest the following broad principles: •

the project should be adequately staffed by individuals with technical knowledge and skills and the necessary leadership and credibility to manage a very large and complex project – staff costs will therefore be considerable, but should not exceed 20% of the overall budget;



a large proportion of the investment should be tendered competitively into e private sector both to ensure that leading commercial solutions can be developed and that direct economic benefits are realised



the budget development work should take account of the need to ensure that sufficient resources are allocated to working with SMEs and communities within (and beyond) Dundee to incentivise and support the necessary innovation and encourage widespread uptake; and



the project will be able to lever investment from other project and initiatives (not least the Waterfront regeneration) and this should significantly enhance the reach of the Demonstrator investment.

We have developed a detailed budget at this stage – that will be presented as part of the Dundee Demonstrator Proposal. However, taking into account the issues discussed above, and the scale of the necessary investment in technology and supporting infrastructure, we believe that the available budget will be sufficient (with 104

the additional leverage from other projects) to support a genuinely exciting and ambitious project in Dundee. It is also worth noting that an investment of £24m will have a proportionately greater impact on a city the size of Dundee that it would on larger cities in the UK. Dundee’s manageable scale is such that the Demonstrator can be delivered at a city-wide level, offering just the kind of test-bed environment envisaged by the TSB.

105

Appendix 1: Desk Review

Contents 1.

Introduction

i

2.

Strategic Review

i

3.

Baseline Review

xvi

106

Introduction This document sets out the main findings arising from a desk review exercise for Dundee City Council’s Future Cities Demonstrator Feasibility Study. This exercise involved two main elements: •

a review of key strategies and plans; and



a review of secondary data sources and data to build a picture of the city and how it has changed in recent years.

Strategic Review This section provides an overview of key agencies and organisations ambitions for Dundee City, including a review of relevant strategies and plans. Here, we also highlight major developments currently underway or planned for the city, and consider the importance of Scottish cities in a broader context.

Scotland’s Cities Scotland’s cities are a key driver for the country’s future economic growth, and in particular make a significant contribution to delivering on the aspirations set out by 17

the Scottish Government in the Government Economic Strategy (GES) . The Scottish Government launched a new £5m Cities Investment Fund last year to be distributed through a new group - Scottish Cities Alliance. The Fund will be used to: •

develop programmes which lever in other funding - either private finance or European funding;



support collaborative programmes between cities which will develop largescale projects; and



develop programmes which allow for wider city region investment

Here, the focus will be on attracting investment, creating jobs and helping Scotland's cities compete more successfully internationally. 17

Scottish Government, Government Economic Strategy, 2007.

Underpinning this activity is the guiding strategy - Scotland’s Cities: Delivering for Scotland

18

which sets out its vision as outlined below.

“A Scotland where our cities and their regions power Scotland’s economy for the benefit of all”.

The aim of the strategy is to ensure that Scottish cities’ assets and resources are fully exploited to maximise their contribution to sustainable economic growth for the benefit of all of Scotland. The strategy closely aligns with the GES (see box below). “Central to our approach will be a renewed focus on cities and their regions, recognising the critical contribution they make as the drivers of economic growth, and the need to work collaboratively to optimise growth for the benefit of the whole of Scotland.” and “investment in infrastructure – whether through new capital investment projects or through the maintenance of the existing asset base – is a key driver of both short term and long-term economic growth and performance.”

The strategy highlights the position that most of the country’s growth sectors are based in cities (and their regions), coupled with the fact that over half of the country’s population lives within city regions – therefore cities are central to the overall success of the economy and it international competitiveness. Early indicative priorities include: •

connectivity o

improving rail and air connectivity to key national and international markets

o

delivering world class digital connectivity, capacity and usage across the cities and their regions and improved mobile coverage along our main transport links;

18

Scottish Government, Scotland’s Cities: Delivering for Scotland, In collaboration with Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Inverness and Stirling, 2011.



sustainability o

the transition to a low carbon economy offers an excellent opportunity to place Scotland in an advantageous position in the global economy and to secure new jobs and investment

o

potential collaborative propositions include opportunities to deliver combined heat and power energy systems and district heating networks across the cities;



knowledge o

exploiting competitive advantage in renewable energy, by identifying and developing complementary city region assets and strengths, including links to the cities' collective academic research expertise

o

maximising the economic impact of further and higher education institutions as drivers of city economies; and



vibrant, cultural o

ensuring closer working between the cities and national agencies to market the cities and their regions as appealing places to live, visit, study and invest

o

adopting a Scotland-wide approach to major events, including the 2014 Commonwealth Games and Ryder Cup, to ensure maximum impact across the city regions.

NHS Tayside NHS Strategic Plan The NHS Strategic Plan

19

outlines the strategic direction for the NHS Trust and is set

in the context of an increasing demand for services coupled with the significant financial constraints facing the public sector. The overarching vision is set out below.

“Working with you for better health and better care.”

19

NHS Tayside, Strategic Plan 2010-2015.

The Plan goes on to highlight four strategic aims, two of which are worth highlighting further: •

contribute to closing the health inequalities gap within a generation - reduce the difference in healthy life expectancy between the most deprived and the most affluent o

healthy life expectancy, mental well-being, building social capital, childhood development, parenting skills, etc; and



improve healthy life expectancy by supporting people to look after themselves - increase healthy life expectancy o

healthy life expectancy, confidence in self-management of long-term conditions, participation in community activity (e.g. walking groups, community support groups, etc).y

patient

NHS Tayside Older People’s Framework As with other parts of Scotland, Tayside faces challenges with an ageing population. NHS Tayside Older People’s Framework

20

was developed in response to the

increasing number of older people and their changing needs, and sets out how it will improve the health, care and support the well-being of older people. The Framework centres on shifting the balance of care to provide services that are more in line with modern needs and ensuring sustainability over the long-term. It highlights four key themes for over the coming years, as set out below. . •

Staying at home.



Being part of the community.



Better experience of acute care.



Quality dementia care.

Being part of the community is scoped out in more detail below. Improving the quality of life of older people and reducing feelings of isolation and exclusion are at the heart of this theme. Continuing participation in community life will help older people maintain their independence – social networks, an active life, easy access to local services and support, etc. 20

NHS Tayside, Older People’s Framework, 2008.

The Framework emphasises the provision of opportunities for all older people, however it also sets out a targeted approach to reach those most likely to lose their independence (e.g. those who are older, without immediate family, on low incomes, without a car or access to good transport, and in poorer accommodation). It refers to “age proofing” – the importance for agencies and groups to remove agerelated barriers to the use of leisure, recreational, learning and arts activities which promote independence in later life.

Dundee City Community Health Partnership (CHP) At al local level, NHS Tayside consists of three CHPs, including Dundee City CHP.

Dundee Partnership The Dundee Partnership has been responsible for driving forward the community planning agenda in the city for over ten years. The Partnership brings together key agencies including Dundee City Council, Scottish Enterprise, Tayside Police and NHS Tayside, along with local academic institutions and representatives of the business, voluntary and community sectors, with a view to co-ordinating inter-agency working. Dundee Partnership has three main structures: •

Dundee Partnership Forum - has a broad membership with a focus on key strategic issues (e.g. health inequalities, transportation, population, climate change and renewable);



Dundee Partnership Management Group - this group consists of Chief Executives and senior officers from the public sector partner organisations, along with the chairs of each theme group and representatives from the private, community and voluntary sectors. Its role is to develop the overall strategy of the Partnership, agree priorities and maximise inter-agency cooperation; and



Dundee Partnership Co-ordinating Group - the group includes a representative of each public sector partner and the theme group chairs. Its role is to co-ordinate the implementation of community planning.

In addition, there are seven theme groups covering: Building Stronger Communities, Children and Young People, Community Safety, Dundee's Environment, Health and Wellbeing, Learning and Culture, and Work and Enterprise. Other and above this, there are a range of other Partnership Groups. Dundee's Community Plan now consists of two documents: •

the Single Outcome Agreement (SOA) sets out the Partnership’s top strategies, priorities and outcomes for the city to be driven by all community planning partners; and



the Dundee SOA Delivery Plan describes the actions which will be taken by partners collectively (and where relevant, individually) to achieve real progress towards the 'above the waterline' outcomes.

SOA The SOA

21

represents Dundee Partnership’s shared aspirations for the city and sets

out its priorities for improving the quality of life for the people of Dundee, as encompassed in Dundee Partnership’s vision outlined below.

Dundee will: •

be a vibrant and attractive city with an excellent quality of life where people choose to live, learn, work and visit.



offer real choice and opportunity in a city that has tackled the root causes of social and economic exclusion, creating a community which is healthy, safe, confident, educated and empowered.



have a strong and sustainable city economy that will provide jobs for the people of Dundee, retain more of the universities' graduates and make the city a magnet for new talent.

The SOA summarises what it sees as the main strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for the city, as follows: •

strengths - growth in the knowledge economy sectors in education, science and creative digital medial industries; regional employment, education and retail hub; public sector provides skilled employment for the city and is

21

Dundee Partnership, Single Outcome Agreement 2009-2012, May 2009.

performing comparatively well; and strong track record on environmental issues in relation to recycling; •

weaknesses - high concentration of deprivation; outcomes in relation to learning, health and employability which are significantly lower than the Scottish average;



opportunities – potential to develop as a renewables capital (and other growth sectors); and strong consensus on the Dundee city development strategy based on the City Waterfront can provide the surrounding region with a high quality education, employment and retail centre; and



threats – ongoing effects of the recent recession increases the risk of deepening inequalities; and population projections indicate an overall reduction between 2006 and 2031 and an older age profile - reduced public sector funding but an increase in demand for services.

Four strategic priorities are contained within the SOA, including: •

jobs and employability;



children and young people;



inequalities; and



physical and mental well-being.

Flowing from the Partnership’s priorities, Dundee Partnership’s eleven strategic outcomes are set out in Table 1. Table 1: Dundee Partnership’s Strategic Outcomes Strategic Outcomes

Strategic Outcomes

Dundee will be a regional centre with better job opportunities and increased employability for our people.

Our communities will be safe and feel safe.

Our people will be better educated and skilled within a knowledge economy renowned for research, innovation and culture.

Our people will experience fewer social inequalities.

Our children will be safe, nurtured, healthy, achieving, active, respected, responsible and included.

Our people will live in stable, attractive and popular neighbourhoods.

Our people will experience fewer health inequalities.

Our people will have high quality and accessible local services and facilities.

Our people will have improved physical and mental well being.

Dundee will have a sustainable environment.

Our people will receive effective care when they need it.

SOA Delivery Plan As highlighted above, the SOA Delivery Plan describes in some detail the actions which will be taken by partners collectively (and where relevant, individually) to achieve the above outcomes. It closely aligns with the SOA and sets out a series of intermediate outcomes to enable the Partnership to monitor progress towards the Strategic Outcomes (Table 1). It is a detailed document that contains actions, target completion date, lead officer, performance indicators, baseline and target.

The Council Plan The Council Plan 2010/12

22

sets out Dundee City Council’s plans for improving

service delivery to deliver better outcomes for local people, and how partnership working continues to be at the heart of their approach. The Council’s vision and priorities are set out in the page below. The focus is on continuing to modernise the city to be a strong regional centre.

Through our Partnership, Dundee: •

will have a strong and sustainable city economy that will provide jobs for the people of Dundee, retain more of the universities’ graduates and make the city a magnet for new talent.



will offer real choice and opportunity in a city that has tackled the root causes of social and economic exclusion, creating social inclusion and a community which is healthy, safe, confident, educated and empowered.



will be a vibrant and attractive city with an excellent quality of life where people choose to live, learn, work and visit.

The Plan, is very much aligned with the city’s SOA, and specifies four policy priorities: •

job retention and creation (creating a working city) o

promote economic growth and job creation

o

maximise the development potential of land and property to stimulate economic growth

22

Dundee City Council, The Council Plan 2010-2012, Changing for the Future.

o

realise the potential to become a leading centre for the renewable energy industry in the UK

o

increase employment capacity of our citizens through the Dundee Employability Partnership.

o

deliver the economic benefits of the Waterfront Project in accordance with key milestones and commence construction of the ‘V&A @Dundee’

o

maintain and improve the city’s transport infrastructure, implement sustainability measures and prepare a detailed proposal for a new rail station concourse in consultation with key delivery partners;



quality of life and social inclusion o

target adult guidance and learning at those most at risk of exclusion and reduce the number of adults without a level one NVQ (or equivalent qualification)

o

develop a strategy to address poverty in the areas of multiple deprivation

o

implement Scottish Housing Quality Standard

o

reduce the number of people presenting as homeless

o

ensure digital inclusion by providing free access to digital information to people otherwise excluded;



healthier safer communities (tackling drug and alcohol abuse) o

establish and implement a framework for the support and protection of adults at risk

o

implement Phase One of the Sport and Physical Activity Strategy 2009-2015

o

work with the Community Safety Partnership to target more crime prevention and community safety measures

o

work with partners to focus on reducing the misuse of drugs.

o

work with partners to develop actions based on the Focus on Alcohol strategy

o •

implement the Carbon Reduction Strategy;

getting it right for every child

o

ensure effective responses to children at risk of immediate harm

o

work in partnership with other agencies to ensure all children and young people are safe and protected

o

implement the Curriculum for Excellence in all Dundee educational establishments

o

identify and address the needs of children and young people in Dundee with additional support needs

o

develop and implement ways to improve the educational attainment and outcomes for children and young people

o

implement initiatives to improve the Health and Well Being of young people in Dundee

o

develop and implement an early years framework

o

develop and implement the GIRFEC Framework across integrated Children’s Services; and



making the Council more efficient.

Dundee Economic Development Plan The Council’s Economic Development Plan for the city identifies five thematic 23

priorities : •

business development and knowledge based economy;



property and physical infrastructure;



place marketing, tourism and events;



skills and employability; and



regeneration.

Local Development Plan The purpose of Local Development Plans is for each local authority to set out ambitious long term visions for their areas. At a high level, Local Development Plans

23

Dundee City Council, Economic Development Plan 2008-11

link with Strategic Development Plans (for this area – TAYplan

24

– is currently being

prepared by Angus, Dundee City, Fife and Perth and Kinross Councils). Proposed TAYplan Vision: By 2032 the TAYplan Region will be sustainable, more attractive, competitive and vibrant without creating an unacceptable burden on our planet. The quality of life will make it a place of first choice where more people choose to live, work and visit, where businesses choose to invest and create jobs. Dundee City Council’s first Local Development Plan was produced in 2009 and it is currently preparing a new Plan. A process of consultation has been progressed during 2011, and the timeline for publishing the new Plan includes: •

proposed Plan and proposed action programme – September 2012 (still to be published);



submit proposed Plan to Ministers – mid 2013; and



publish modifications and proposed plan - summer 2014.

The new Plan will set out a strategy to guide the city’s future development over the next five years (and provide broad indications of growth for up to ten years), as well as set out policies and proposals covering the principal land use issues in the city (including where any new development should and should not happen). Following an initial process of consultation, was undertaken during 2011, and in September that year the Council published a Main Issues Report

25

which provides

further information on the key issues that have been identified as requiring addressed in the city. The Report specifies five main issues (and then sub-issues), namely: •



24 25

delivering sustainable economic growth o

safeguarding employment land

o

prioritisation of high amenity economic development areas

o

maintenance of general economic development areas;

delivering quality housing

The TAYplan sets out a vision – there is no requirement for Local Development Plans to have a separate vision. Dundee City Council, Dundee Local Development Plan, Main Issues Report, September 2011.



o

distribution of housing land

o

greenfield land release

o

house type

o

design guidelines;

town centres and retailing o

city centre - direct what available expenditure and investment there is to the City Centre including the Central Waterfront





o

district centres

o

major out of centre retailing;

sustainable natural and built environments o

energy efficiency and renewable energy

o

sustainability and design in the built environment

o

flooding

o

waste; and

sustainable and accessible transport o

sustainable and accessible transport.

Higher Education The city has two universities – University of Dundee and University of Abertay. The University of Dundee has recently undergone a £200 million campus redevelopment, and is internationally renowned for its life sciences research and nationally recognised for its Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art and Design. The University of Abertay is recognised as a national leader in digital games. The city has the highest student to resident ratio in Scotland, and one of the highest in the UK - more than 35,000 students live in Dundee.

Major Developments Dundee Waterfront Dundee Waterfront is a £1 billion project to reconnect the city to the waterfront, and the long-term vision for the waterfront is outlined below. It is one of the UK’s top 20 regeneration projects. To transform the City of Dundee into a world leading waterfront destination for visitors and businesses through the enhancement of its physical, economic and cultural assets. The project is being led by Dundee City Council, Scottish Enterprise and the Scottish Government. The 30-year redevelopment (mixed uses including business, commercial, leisure, retail, residential and port related uses) began back in 2001 and consists of 240 hectares of land stretching 8km along the River Tay. It is anticipated that the redevelopment will lead to the creation of over 7,000 jobs in additional to significantly enhancing the city’s landscape. The Dundee Waterfront project consists of five areas, from Invergowrie Bay in the West of the city to Stannergate in the East. The areas being developed, and specific projects, include: •

Riverside o

a former landfill site has been transformed to create a 35 hectare nature park with views over the River Tay (complete)

o

there are proposals to create a rail stop and Park and Ride facilities to enable access to other waterfront zones

o •

there are plans to develop residential flats along the riverside;

Seabraes o

this aspect of the development will build on the city’s reputation and expertise in digital media and creative industries

o

a range of premises, sizes and pricing to suit companies from the most basic start-ups to established businesses are already available (Seabraes House and Vision) (complete)

o

other proposed developments include District [email protected] (office) and Greenmarket (leisure and retail)

o •

two sites have also been earmarked for residential development

The Central Waterfront o

this is the focal point of the overall Dundee Waterfront project and will have a focus on city centre businesses, financial sector, hospitality and leisure

o

demolition of bridge ramps, roads and buildings, which previously separated the city centre from the waterfront (complete)

o

a new grid iron street pattern, green civic space and attractive boulevards are reconnecting the city with the waterfront to produce a space that will see the new V&A at Dundee building situated next to Captain Scott's ship RRS Discovery

o

a new hotel (complete)

o

there are plans in place to improve Dundee Rail Station and its surrounding area, including new civic space;



City Quay o

a focus on offices, leisure, residential, marina

o

750 new homes and apartments and more than 20,000 square metres of commercial space, including almost 10,000 square metres of modern office space divided into two waterfront buildings - River Court and City Court - has been created in City Quay (complete)

o

further investment and development opportunities include the provision of support services for the adjacent Dundee Port activities, residential accommodation, hotel and the creation of a marina in a former dock; and



The Port o

the city is establishing itself as a centre for renewable research and development and this site will focus on renewable technologies industries

o

there are 25 hectares of available quayside land at the Port for renewable energy manufacturing

o

the replacement of Stannergate Bridge is part of the wider aim to improve access to Dundee Port primarily for HGV traffic.

Baseline Review This section helps to build a profile of the area which is based on a review of existing datasets. Here, we provide information for Dundee and where relevant draw on comparisons with Tayside.

General Economy Overview 26

Current economic forecasts suggest the Tayside regional economy will come out of the recession at a slower rate than many of Scotland’s regions. However, there are also a number of positive signs for economies that have strong representation in technology and innovation based enterprises – with these industries highlighted as providing significant opportunity to drive economic growth. The region already has established life sciences and digital media clusters, and further, a growing renewable sector. There are a number of key projects and priorities (as previously highlighted) that will drive growth in the Dundee economy, including: •

Dundee Waterfront;



Ports/Renwables;



V&A; and



Seabraes Yard.

Population Current Population Dundee has a total population of 144,400 which is over one-third of the total population in Tayside (36%), Table 1. Its population is generally in line with that for the rest of the region.

Table 1: Population by Age (2010) 26

SE Regional Economic Profiles

Dundee

Tayside

Age

Nos.

%

Nos.

%

0 - 15

23,900

17%

68,400

17%

16 - 64

94,800

66%

257,200

64%

65+

25,700

18%

77,100

19%

Total

144,400

100%

402,700

100%

Source: General Register Office for Scotland (GROS)

Change in Population Dundee’s population has increased slightly between 2008 and 2010 (up 1,900 or 1%), Table 2. Again, this is in line with the change in population at the Tayside level over the same period. Table 2: Change in Population by Age (2008/2010)

Dundee Age

2008

Change

% Change

2008

2010

1%

68,400 253,300

2010

0-4

23,700

23,900

200

16 - 64

93,100

94,800

1,700

2%

65+ Total

Change

% Change

68,400

0

0%

257,200

3,900

2%

Tayside

25,700

25,700

0

0%

75,200

77,100

1,900

3%

142,500

144,400

1,900

1%

397,000

402,600

5,800

1%

Source: General Register Office for Scotland (GROS)

Population Projections The latest population projections for 2010 to 2035 estimate that in Scotland the total 27

population is likely to increase by 10% . In Dundee City the estimated increase is lower than the national average at 7% (up from 144,400 to 153,700). Within this, there is estimated to be particular increases within the 65-74 (up 20%) and 75+ (up 41%) age bands.

Deprivation The Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) identifies small area concentrations of deprivation across all of Scotland and ranks these areas datazones from most deprived (ranked 1) to least deprived (ranked 6,505).

27

GROS

Seven domains are examined by the SIMD including Employment, Income, Health, Education, Access to services, Crime, and Housing. A total of 179 datazones help to make up Dundee City. Table 3 below highlights the number of datazones in Dundee in the bottom 5%, 10% and 15% and the proportion in most deprived datazones in Scotland. Table 3: Deprivation in Dundee Datazones

Nos of Dundee Datazones

%

5% most deprived

20

11%

10% most deprived

40

22%

15% most deprived

56

31%

Source SIMD 2009

Dundee experiences multi-faceted deprivation, with almost one-third of its population living in the 15% most deprived datazones in Scotland. Further, key points to note across each of the domains include: •

49% of datazones in Dundee are in the bottom 15% most deprived datazones in Scotland for housing related indicators;



36% of datazones in Dundee are in the bottom 15% most deprived datazones in Scotland for employment related indicators;



34% of datazones in Dundee are in the bottom 15% most deprived datazones in Scotland for income related indicators;



30% of datazones in Dundee are in the bottom 15% most deprived datazones in Scotland for education, skills and training related indicators;



22% of datazones in Dundee are in the bottom 15% most deprived datazones in Scotland for health related indicators;



17% of datazones in Dundee are in the bottom 15% most deprived datazones in Scotland for crime related indicators; and



none of the datazones in Dundee are in the bottom 15% most deprived datazones in Scotland for geographic access to services indicators.

It is evident from above that Dundee experiences deprivation across a range of domains, in particular housing, employment and income.

Health and Well-being Data on the health and well-being is available at the CHP level and comparisons have been made at the Scottish level against 59 indicators of health, well-being, and 28

wider determinants of health . Across the 59 indicators, Dundee City CHP is statistically “significantly worse” than the Scottish average on half of the indicators (30). Some key issues affecting the local area that can be gleaned from the data include: •

the population is relatively elderly compared to the overall Scottish population - 8.9% are aged 75 and over (Scotland 7.7%);



male (73.2 years) and female (79 years) life expectancies at birth are worse than the Scottish average (74.5 and 79.5 respectively), but they have been rising steadily over time;



the mortality rates from all causes (all ages) and cancer (under-75s) are significantly worse than the national average;



there have been 480 deaths from alcohol conditions in the last five years, giving a death rate significantly worse than the Scotland average;



hospital patient rates for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and emergency admissions, are all significantly higher than the national average;



Dundee has one of the highest estimated percentages of patients prescribed drugs for anxiety, depression or psychosis (12.2% compared to 9.7% Scotland-wide);



7.2% of adults claim incapacity benefit or severe disability allowance (Scotland 5.6%);



the average tariff score of pupils in S4 (secondary year 4) is the second lowest of all CHP areas, and school attendance is below average;



20.4% of the population are income deprived (Scotland 15.1%) and 15.6% of the working age population are employment deprived (Scotland 11.6%);



the crime rate is significantly worse than the national average (58.3 per 1,000 population, compared with 49.5 per 1,000 Scotland-wide);

28

ScotPHO, Dundee City Health and Well-being Profile 2010, Dundee City CHP, November 2010.



only 46.0% of adults rate their neighbourhood as a very good place to live (Scotland 52.0%); and



Dundee has the highest under-18 teenage pregnancy rate of any CHP area (76.4 per 1,000 females aged 15-17, compared with 41.4 per 1,000 Scotland-wide).

Qualifications and Occupations Table 4 below shows the highest level of qualification held among the working age population in Dundee and how this has changed over the period 2009 to 2011. Table 4: Dundee Qualifications (2009 to 2011) Jan – Dec 2009

Jan – Dec 2010

Jan – Dec 2011

Change 2009/11

NVQ4+

33.5%

36.5%

34.8%

1.3%

NVQ3 only

15.9%

15.6%

14.4%

-1.5%

Trade Apprenticeships

5.0%

4.2%

5.1%

NVQ2 only

13.6%

15.0%

15.2%

1.6%

NVQ1 only

10.1%

10.3%

11.7%

1.6%

Other qualifications

8.2%

8.1%

6.9%

No qualifications

13.8%

10.3%

12.0%

0.1%

-1.3% -1.8%

Sources: Annual Population Survey

The proportion of the working age population in Dundee with no qualifications has decreased by 1.8% to 12% over the period. This is generally in line with that for Tayside as a whole (currently 11.6%). Over one-third of the working age population’s highest qualification is an NVQ4 or above, and this has increased slightly since 2009. Table 5: Dundee Occupations (2009 to 2012) Apr 2009 – Mar 2010

Apr 2010 – Mar 2011

Apr 2011 – Mar 2012

Change 2010/12

SOC 1-3

37.9%

36.6%

35.3%

-2.6%

SOC 4-6

29.4%

30.8%

29.9%

0.5%

SOC 7-9

32.3%

32.3%

34.5%

2.2%

Sources: Annual Population Survey

Over one-third of all those in employment in Dundee are in high level occupations (SOC 1-3: managers, directors, professional, scientific, etc), however this has

decreased over the period 2009 to 2011 (and by more than Tayside as a whole which fell by 1%). The proportion in more elementary positions (SOC 7:9 - sales and customer service occupations, process, plant and machine operatives, elementary occupations) has increased over the same period by 2.2% to 34.5%. At the Tayside level it increased marginally by 0.5%. Currently, there are fewer high level occupations in Dundee when compared with Tayside (35.3% compared with 38.9%), and more in elementary positions (34.5% compared with 28.9%).

Business Base There are some 4,240 businesses in Dundee, which represents a small increase of 32 businesses (or 1%) on the figures for 2007 (Table 6). The current business base in Dundee represents 30% of the total number of businesses in Tayside. The main sectors in Dundee experiencing growth over the period 2007 to 2008 include: mining, quarrying and utilities (up 18%), property (up 15%), and business administration and support services (up 10%). Wholesale and public sector and other experienced the largest decline (both 5%).

Table 6: Dundee Business Base (2007 and 2008) 2007

2008

Change

% Change

Agriculture, forestry & fishing

8

8

0

0%

Mining, quarrying & utilities

17

20

3

18%

Manufacturing

217

215

-2

-1%

Construction

393

398

5

1% -1%

Motor trades

141

139

-2

Wholesale

196

187

-9

-5%

Retail

744

746

2

0%

Transport & storage

100

107

7

7%

Accommodation & food services

372

388

16

4%

Information & communication

170

163

-7

-4%

Finance & insurance

120

120

0

0%

Property

119

137

18

15%

Professional, scientific & technical

335

335

0

0%

Business administration & support services

241

264

23

10%

Education

134

131

-3

-2%

Health

411

415

4

1%

Public admin & other

490

467

-23

-5%

4,208

4,240

32

1%

Total

Source: Annual Business Inquiry

Labour Market This section outlines key labour market statistics including employment and claimant count.

Economic Activity The proportion of the working age population in Dundee that is currently economically activity (i.e. currently employed or actively seeking work) is 74%.

In recent years (2009 to 2012) the economically activity population in the city has been consistently below that for Tayside (which currently stands at 77.1%). Table 7: Dundee Economic Activity (16-64 years) (2009 to 2012) Apr 2009 – Mar 2010

Apr 2010 – Mar 2011

Apr 2011 – Mar 2012

Change

Economically active

75.3%

77.0%

74.0%

-1.3%

In employment

68.6%

70.5%

67.2%

-1.4%

Employees

62.1%

64.9%

61.5%

-0.6%

Self employed

6.0%

5.1%

5.4%

-0.6%

Unemployed

8.8%

8.4%

9.2%

0.4%

Source: Annual Population Survey

Likewise, levels of self-employment in Dundee have consistently been below that for Tayside (which is currently 8.1% compared with 5.4% for Dundee). The unemployment rate in Dundee has increased slightly over the period 2009 to 2012 and currently stands at 9.2%. The comparable figure for Tayside is lower at 7.4%.

Employment Table 8 reports the key employing industry sectors within Dundee. Over the period 2008 and 2010, employment decreased by almost 3,000 in Dundee (-4%). In 2010 the health sector was the largest source of employment (22%). Other key employment sectors include retail (12%) and education (11%). Over the period employment fell across a number of sectors including agriculture, forestry and fishing (-58%), business administration and support services (-35%), financial and insurance (-31%) and mining, quarrying and utilities (-31%).

Table 8: Employment in Dundee (2008/2010) 2008

2010

Change

% Change

Agriculture, forestry & fishing

76

32

-44

-58%

Mining, quarrying & utilities

804

557

-247

-31%

Manufacturing

6,237

4,693

-1,544

-25%

Construction

4,538

4,335

-203

-4%

Motor trades

1,275

1,294

19

1%

Wholesale

2,289

2,323

34

1%

Retail

9,703

9,156

-547

-6%

Transport & storage

2,064

1,742

-322

-16%

Accommodation & food services

5,189

5,181

-8

0%

Information & communication

3,423

3,353

-70

-2%

Financial & insurance

2,040

1,413

-627

-31%

Property

1,038

938

-100

-10%

Professional, scientific & technical

3,011

2,797

-214

-7%

Business administration & support services

4,631

3,028

-1,603

-35%

Public administration & defence

5,036

5,526

490

10%

Education

8,641

8,357

-284

-3%

Health

14,812

16,814

2,002

14%

Arts, entertainment, recreation & other services

3,276

3,576

300

9%

Total

78,083

75,114

-2,969

-4%

Source: Business Register and Employment Survey

Unemployment Unemployment is measured through claimant count data i.e. the number of people that are not working but actively seeking a job and claiming Job Seekers Allowance (JSA). Figure 1 presents the claimant count for Dundee and draws comparison with Tayside. Currently (2012) the claimant count in Dundee is 8.5%, this is 3.2% greater than the Tayside average. Indeed, claimant count in Dundee has been consistently higher than the regional average. There has generally been an increase in claimant count at both levels, although the increase has been higher in Dundee (up 3.5% since 2008) than at the regional level (up 2.4% since 2008).

Figure 1: Claimant Count (2008/12)

9.0 8.5

8.0 8.1

7.0 7.2

6.0 5.0

7.0 5.3

5.0

4.0

5.2

4.7

3.0

4.6

2.9

2.0 1.0 0.0 January 2008

January 2009

January 2010

Dundee

January 2011

January 2012

Tayside

Benefits and Worklessness Table 9 provides a breakdown of benefit claimants across Dundee and Tayside. Table 9: Benefit Claimants of Working Age Population (2010/2012) Dundee

Tayside

Feb 2010

Feb 2011

Feb 2012

Feb 2010

Feb 2011

Feb 2012

Job seeker

5.3

5.6

5.9

3.7

3.9

4.0

ESA and incapacity benefits

10.8

10.4

10.5

7.8

7.6

7.7

Lone parent

2.2

2.0

1.8

1.5

1.3

1.3

Carer

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.0

1.1

1.2

Others on income related benefit

0.6

0.7

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Disabled

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.0

1.1

1.1

Bereaved

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

Unknown

-

-

-

-

-

-

21.3

21.3

21.5

15.7

15.8

15.9

Total

Source: Office for National Statistics (ONS) and Department for Work and Pensions (DWP)

The data shows that over one-fifth of the working age population (aged 16 – 64) in Dundee is claiming at least one form on benefit, with Employment Support Allowance/Incapacity Benefit accounting for the largest proportion of benefits claimed.

Within Dundee the proportion of benefit claimants has remained relatively static over the past three years. Over this period, however, it has consistently been above the rate for Tayside as a whole, and is currently 5.4% above the regional rate.

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